Главная страница
Контакты

    Главная страница


Реферирование специальной литературы, ее аннотирование

Скачать 261.96 Kb.



Скачать 261.96 Kb.
Дата30.09.2017
Размер261.96 Kb.

Реферирование специальной литературы, ее аннотирование


МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ РЕСПУБЛИКИ БЕЛАРУСЬ

УО "БЕЛОРУССКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ"

Кафедра межкультурной экономической коммуникации

ОТЧЕТ

об учебной (переводческой) практике

Выполнила: студентка 4 курса

группы ДЯК-2 А.А. Ярошинская

Проверил: руководитель,

старший преподаватель Н.А. Залесская

Минск 2015

Содержание

  • Введение
  • 1. Реферирование
  • Глоссарий
  • Оглавление статьи - "Эффективная бизнес коммуникация" ("Effective Business Communication")
  • 2. Аннотирование
  • Глоссарий
  • Body language and etiquette in business
  • 3. Перевод
  • Глоссарий
  • 4. Устный перевод
  • Заключение

Введение

Прохождение учебной практики является важной составной частью учебного процесса.
Учебная деятельность - это вид практической педагогической деятельности, целью которой является человек, владеющий необходимой частью культуры и опыта старшего поколения, представленных учебными программами в форме совокупности знаний и умений ими пользоваться.
Основными целями и задачами переводческой практики является:

· Закрепление специальных теоретических знаний, полученных в процессе обучения;

· Овладение навыками реферирования и аннотирования текста, принципами смыслового свертывания текста на иностранном и родном языках;

· Овладение навыками устного перевода с родного языка на иностранный и с иностранного на родной

· Изучение речевых клише на иностранном и родном языках, используемых в различных видах реферирования и аннотирования;

· Практическое применение и углубление знаний иностранных языков путем чтения и перевода коммерческой и деловой информации;

· Приобретение практических навыков работы с компьютерными программами переводческого характера;
Язы́к - сложная знаковая система, естественно или искусственно созданная и соотносящая понятийное содержание и типовое звучание (написание).
Компьютерная программа Компью́терная програ́мма - 1) комбинация компьютерных инструкций и данных, позволяющая аппаратному обеспечению вычислительной системы выполнять вычисления или функции управления (стандарт ISO/IEC/IEEE 24765:2010); 2) синтаксическая единица, которая соответствует правилам определённого языка программирования, состоящая из определений и операторов или инструкций, необходимых для определённой функции, задачи или решения проблемы (стандарт ISO/IEC 2382-1:1993).


· Практическое применение словарей и составление глоссариев.

Моя переводческая практика была на базе студенческого бюро перевода и состояла из четырех видов работ: реферирование специальной литературы, аннотирование, перевод, устный перевод.

1. Реферирование

Communication is a key to your success-in relationships, in the workplace, as a citizen of your country, and across your lifetime. Your ability to communicate comes from experience, and experience can be an effective teacher. You can learn from the lessons they've learned and be a more effective communicator right out of the gate.

Business communication can be thought of as a problem solving activity in which individuals may address the following questions:

· What is the situation?

· What are some possible communication strategies?

· What is the best course of action?

· What is the best way to design the chosen message?

· What is the best way to deliver the message?

Communication influences your thinking about yourself and others.

We all share a fundamental drive to communicate.communication can be defined as the process of understanding and sharing meaning. You share meaning in what you say and how you say it, both in oral and written forms. If you could not communicate, what would life be like? A series of never-ending frustrations? Not being able to ask for what you need or even to understand the needs of others?

Being unable to communicate might even mean losing a part of yourself, for you communicate your self-concept-your sense of self and awareness of who you are-in many ways. Do you like to write? Do you find it easy to make a phone call to a stranger or to speak to a room full of people? Perhaps someone told you that you don't speak clearly or your grammar needs improvement. Does that make you more or less likely to want to communicate? For some, it may be a positive challenge, while for others it may be discouraging. But in all cases, your ability to communicate is central to your self-concept. Take a look at your clothes. What are the brands you are wearing? What do you think they say about you? Do you feel that certain styles of shoes, jewelry, tattoos, music, or even automobiles express who you are? Part of your self-concept may be that you express yourself through texting, or through writing longer documents like essays and research papers, or through the way you speak. On the other side of the coin, your communications skills help you to understand others-not just their words, but also their tone of voice, their nonverbal gestures, or the format of their written documents provide you with clues about who they are and what their values and priorities may be. Active listening and reading are also part of being a successful communicator. When you were an infant, you learned to talk over a period of many months. When you got older, you didn't learn to ride a bike, drive a car, or even text a message on your cell phone in one brief moment. You need to begin the process of improving your speaking and writing with the frame of mind that it will require effort, persistence, and self-correction. You learn to speak in public by first having conversations, then by answering questions and expressing your opinions in class, and finally by preparing and delivering a "stand-up” speech. Similarly, you learn to write by first learning to read, then by writing and learning to think critically. Your speaking and writing are reflections of your thoughts, experience, and education. Part of that combination is your level of experience listening to other speakers, reading documents and styles of writing, and studying formats similar to what you aim to produce. As you study business communication, you may receive suggestions for improvement and clarification from speakers and writers more experienced than yourself. Take their suggestions as challenges to improve; don't give up when your first speech or first draft does not communicate the message you intend. Stick with it until you get it right. Your success in communicating is a skill that applies to almost every field of work, and it makes a difference in your relationships with others. Remember, luck is simply a combination of preparation and timing. You want to be prepared to communicate well when given the opportunity. Each time you do a good job, your success will bring more success.

You want to make a good first impression on your friends and family, instructors, and employer. They all want you to convey a positive image, as it reflects on them. In your career, you will represent your business or company in spoken and written form. Your professionalism and attention to detail will reflect positively on you and set you up for success. In both oral and written situations, you will benefit from having the ability to communicate clearly. These are skills you will use for the rest of your life. Positive improvements in these skills will have a positive impact on your relationships, your prospects for employment, and your ability to make a difference in the world. Oral and written communication proficiencies are consistently ranked in the top ten desirable skills by employer surveys year after year. In fact, high-powered business executives sometimes hire consultants to coach them in sharpening their communication skills. According to the National Association of Colleges and Employers, the following are the top five personal qualities or skills potential employers seek:

1. Communication skills (verbal and written)

2. Strong work ethic

3. Teamwork skills (works well with others, group communication)

4. Initiative

5. Analytical skills

Knowing this, you can see that one way for you to be successful and increase your promotion potential is to increase your abilities to speak and write effectively. In September 2004, the National Commission on Writing for America's Families, Schools, and Colleges published a study on 120 human resource directors titled Writing: A Ticket to Work…Or a Ticket Out, A Survey of Business Leaders. The study found that "writing is both a `marker' of high-skill, high-wage, professional work and a `gatekeeper' with clear equity implications," said Bob Kerrey, president of New School University in New York and chair of the commission. "People unable to express themselves clearly in writing limit their opportunities for professional, salaried employment." On the other end of the spectrum, it is estimated that over forty million Americans are illiterate or unable to functionally read or write. An individual with excellent communication skills is an asset to every organization. No matter what career you plan to pursue, learning to express yourself professionally in speech and in writing will help you get there. Many theories have been proposed to describe, predict, and understand the behaviors and phenomena of which communication consists. When it comes to communicating in business, we are often less interested in theory than in making sure our communications generate the desired results. But in order to achieve results, it can be valuable to understand what communication is and how it works. The root of the word "communication" in Latin is communicare, which means to share, or to make common.communication is defined as the process of understanding and sharing meaning. At the center of our study of communication is the relationship that involves interaction between participants. This definition serves us well with its emphasis on the process, which we'll examine in depth across this text, of coming to understand and share another's point of view effectively. The first key word in this definition is process. A process is a dynamic activity that is hard to describe because it changes. Imagine you are alone in your kitchen thinking. Someone you know (say, your mother) enters the kitchen and you talk briefly. What has changed? Now, imagine that your mother is joined by someone else, someone you haven't met before-and this stranger listens intently as you speak, almost as if you were giving a speech. What has changed? Your perspective might change, and you might watch your words more closely. The feedback or response from your mother and the stranger (who are, in essence, your audience) may cause you to reevaluate what you are saying. When we interact, all these factors-and many more-influence the process of communication. The second key word is understanding: "To understand is to perceive, to interpret, and to relate our perception and interpretation to what we already know. ” If a friend tells you a story about falling off a bike, what image comes to mind? Now your friend points out the window and you see a motorcycle lying on the ground. Understanding the words and the concepts or objects they refer to is an important part of the communication process. Next comes the word sharing. Sharing means doing something together with one or more people. You may share a joint activity, as when you share in compiling a report; or you may benefit jointly from a resource, as when you and several coworkers share a pizza. In communication, sharing occurs when you convey thoughts, feelings, ideas, or insights to others. You can also share with yourself (a process called intrapersonal communication) when you bring ideas to consciousness, ponder how you feel about something, or figure out the solution to a problem and have a classic "Aha! ” moment when something becomes clear. Finally, meaning is what we share through communication. The word "bike” represents both a bicycle and a short name for a motorcycle. By looking at the context the word is used in and by asking questions, we can discover the shared meaning of the word and understand the message. In order to better understand the communication process, we can break it down into a series of eight essential components:

1. Source

2. Message

3. Channel

4. Receiver

5. Feedback

6. Environment

7. Context

8. Interference

Each of these eight components serves an integral function in the overall process. Let's explore them one by one.

Source

The
source imagines, creates, and sends the message. In a public speaking situation, the source is the person giving the speech. He or she conveys the message by sharing new information with the audience. The speaker also conveys a message through his or her tone of voice, body language, and choice of clothing. The speaker begins by first determining the message-what to say and how to say it. The second step involves encoding the message by choosing just the right order or the perfect words to convey the intended meaning. The third step is to present or send the information to the receiver or audience. Finally, by watching for the audience's reaction, the source perceives how well they received the message and responds with clarification or supporting information.

Message

"
The message is the stimulus or meaning produced by the source for the receiver or audience. ” When you plan to give a speech or write a report, your message may seem to be only the words you choose that will convey your meaning. But that is just the beginning. The words are brought together with grammar and organization. You may choose to save your most important point for last. The message also consists of the way you say it-in a speech, with your tone of voice, your body language, and your appearance-and in a report, with your writing style, punctuation, and the headings and formatting you choose. In addition, part of the message may be the environment or context you present it in and the noise that might make your message hard to hear or see.

Imagine, for example, that you are addressing a large audience of sales reps and are aware there is a World Series game tonight. Your audience might have a hard time settling down, but you may choose to open with, "I understand there is an important game tonight. ” In this way, by expressing verbally something that most people in your audience are aware of and interested in, you might grasp and focus their attention.

Channel


"The channel is the way in which a message or messages travel between source and receiver. ” For example, think of your television. How many channels do you have on your television? Each channel takes up some space, even in a digital world, in the cable or in the signal that brings the message of each channel to your home. Television combines an audio signal you hear with a visual signal you see. Together they convey the message to the receiver or audience. Turn off the volume on your television. Can you still understand what is happening? Many times you can, because the body language conveys part of the message of the show. Now turn up the volume but turn around so that you cannot see the television. You can still hear the dialogue and follow the story line.

Similarly, when you speak or write, you are using a channel to convey your message. Spoken channels include face-to-face conversations, speeches, telephone conversations and voice mail messages, radio, public address systems, and voice over Internet protocol (VoIP).
Голосовая почта - это электронная система для регистрации, сохранения и перенаправления телефонных голосовых сообщений (иногда - для розыска и оповещения пользователей).
Internet Protocol (IP, досл. «межсетевой протокол») - маршрутизируемый протокол сетевого уровня стека TCP/IP. Именно IP стал тем протоколом, который объединил отдельные компьютерные сети во всемирную сеть Интернет.
Written channels include letters, memorandums, purchase orders, invoices, newspaper and magazine articles, blogs, e-mail, text messages, tweets, and so forth.

Receiver

"
The receiver receives the message from the source, analyzing and interpreting the message in ways both intended and unintended by the source." To better understand this component, think of a receiver on a football team. The quarterback throws the football (message) to a receiver, who must see and interpret where to catch the ball. The quarterback may intend for the receiver to "catch" his message in one way, but the receiver may see things differently and miss the football (the intended meaning) altogether. As a receiver you listen, see, touch, smell, and/or taste to receive a message. Your audience "sizes you up," much as you might check them out long before you take the stage or open your mouth. The nonverbal responses of your listeners can serve as clues on how to adjust your opening. By imagining yourself in their place, you anticipate what you would look for if you were them. Just as a quarterback plans where the receiver will be in order to place the ball correctly, you too can recognize the interaction between source and receiver in a business communication context. All of this happens at the same time, illustrating why and how communication is always changing.

Feedback

When
you respond to the source, intentionally or unintentionally, you are giving feedback. Feedback is composed of messages the receiver sends back to the source. Verbal or nonverbal, all these feedback signals allow the source to see how well, how accurately (or how poorly and inaccurately) the message was received. Feedback also provides an opportunity for the receiver or audience to ask for clarification, to agree or disagree, or to indicate that the source could make the message more interesting. As the amount of feedback increases, the accuracy of communication also increases.

For example, suppose you are a sales manager participating in a conference call with four sales reps. As the source, you want to tell the reps to take advantage of the fact that it is World Series season to close sales on baseball-related sports gear. You state your message, but you hear no replies from your listeners. You might assume that this means they understood and agreed with you, but later in the month you might be disappointed to find that very few sales were made. If you followed up your message with a request for feedback ("Does this make sense? Do any of you have any questions? ”) you might have an opportunity to clarify your message, and to find out whether any of the sales reps believed your suggestion would not work with their customers.

Environment

"The environment is the atmosphere, physical and psychological, where you send and receive messages." The environment can include the tables, chairs, lighting, and sound equipment that are in the room. The room itself is an example of the environment. The environment can also include factors like formal dress that may indicate whether a discussion is open and caring or more professional and formal. People may be more likely to have an intimate conversation when they are physically close to each other, and less likely when they can only see each other from across the room. In that case, they may text each other, itself an intimate form of communication. The choice to text is influenced by the environment. As a speaker, your environment will impact and play a role in your speech. It's always a good idea to go check out where you'll be speaking before the day of the actual presentation.

Context


"
The context of the communication interaction involves the setting, scene, and expectations of the individuals involved. ” A professional communication context may involve business suits (environmental cues) that directly or indirectly influence expectations of language and behavior among the participants. A presentation or discussion does not take place as an isolated event. When you came to class, you came from somewhere. So did the person seated next to you, as did the instructor. The degree to which the environment is formal or informal depends on the contextual expectations for communication held by the participants. The person sitting next to you may be used to informal communication with instructors, but this particular instructor may be used to verbal and nonverbal displays of respect in the academic environment. You may be used to formal interactions with instructors as well, and find your classmate's question of "Hey Teacher, do we have homework today? ” as rude and inconsiderate when they see it as normal. The nonverbal response from the instructor will certainly give you a clue about how they perceive the interaction, both the word choices and how they were said.

Context is all about what people expect from each other, and we often create those expectations out of environmental cues. Traditional gatherings like weddings are often formal events. There is a time for quiet social greetings, a time for silence as the bride walks down the aisle, or the father may have the first dance with his daughter as she is transformed from a girl to womanhood in the eyes of her community. In either celebration there may come a time for rambunctious celebration and dancing. You may be called upon to give a toast and the wedding context will influence your presentation, timing, and effectiveness. In a business meeting, who speaks first? That probably has some relation to the position and role each person has outside the meeting. Context plays a very important role in communication, particularly across cultures.

Interference

Interference, also called noise, can come from any source. "Interference is anything that blocks or changes the source's intended meaning of the message." For example, if you drove a car to work or school, chances are you were surrounded by noise. Car horns, billboards, or perhaps the radio in your car interrupted your thoughts, or your conversation with a passenger.

Psychological
noise is what happens when your thoughts occupy your attention while you are hearing, or reading, a message. Imagine that it is 4: 45 p. m. and your boss, who is at a meeting in another city, e-mails you asking for last month's sales figures, an analysis of current sales projections, and the sales figures from the same month for the past five years. You may open the e-mail, start to read, and think, "Great-no problem-I have those figures and that analysis right here in my computer." You fire off a reply with last month's sales figures and the current projections attached. Then, at five o'clock, you turn off your computer and go home. The next morning, your boss calls on the phone to tell you he was inconvenienced because you neglected to include the sales figures from the previous years. What was the problem? Interference: by thinking about how you wanted to respond to your boss's message, you prevented yourself from reading attentively enough to understand the whole message. Interference can come from other sources, too. Perhaps you are hungry, and your attention to your current situation interferes with your ability to listen. Maybe the office is hot and stuffy. If you were a member of an audience listening to an executive speech, how could this impact your ability to listen and participate? Noise interferes with normal encoding and decoding of the message carried by the channel between source and receiver. Not all noise is bad, but noise interferes with the communication process. For example, your cell phone ringtone may be a welcome noise to you, but it may interrupt the communication process in class and bother your classmates. Researchers have observed that when communication takes place, the source and the receiver may send messages at the same time, often overlapping. You, as the speaker, will often play both roles, as source and receiver. You'll focus on the communication and the reception of your messages to the audience. The audience will respond in the form of feedback that will give you important clues. While there are many models of communication, here we will focus on two that offer perspectives and lessons for business communicators. Rather than looking at the source sending a message and someone receiving it as two distinct acts, researchers often view communication as a transactional process, with actions often happening at the same time. The distinction between source and receiver is blurred in conversational turn-taking, for example, where both participants play both roles simultaneously. Researchers have also examined the idea that we all construct our own interpretations of the message. In the constructivist model, we focus on the negotiated meaning, or common ground, when trying to describe communication. Imagine that you are visiting Atlanta, Georgia, and go to a restaurant for dinner. When asked if you want a "Coke," you may reply, "sure." The waiter may then ask you again, "what kind? ” and you may reply, "Coke is fine. ” The waiter then may ask a third time, "what kind of soft drink would you like? ” The misunderstanding in this example is that in Atlanta, the home of the Coca-Cola Company, most soft drinks are generically referred to as "Coke.
Coca-Cola («Кока-кола») - безалкогольный газированный напиток, производимый компанией «The Coca-Cola Company».
” When you order a soft drink, you need to specify what type, even if you wish to order a beverage that is not a cola or not even made by the Coca-Cola Company.
The Coca-Cola Company ([ðə ˈkoukə ˈkoulə ˈkʌmpənɪ], рус. компания «Кока-кола») - американская пищевая компания, крупнейший мировой производитель и поставщик концентратов, сиропов и безалкогольных напитков.
To someone from other regions of the United States, the words "pop,” "soda pop,” or "soda” may be the familiar way to refer to a soft drink; not necessarily the brand "Coke." In this example, both you and the waiter understand the word "Coke," but you each understand it to mean something different. In order to communicate, you must each realize what the term means to the other person, and establish common ground, in order to fully understand the request and provide an answer. Because we carry the multiple meanings of words, gestures, and ideas within us, we can use a dictionary to guide us, but we will still need to negotiate meaning. Now that we have examined the eight components of communication, let's examine this in context. Is a quiet dinner conversation with someone you care about the same experience as a discussion in class or giving a speech? Is sending a text message to a friend the same experience as writing a professional project proposal or a purchase order? Each context has an influence on the communication process. Contexts can overlap, creating an even more dynamic process. You have been communicating in many of these contexts across your lifetime, and you'll be able to apply what you've learned through experience in each context to business communication. Have you ever listened to a speech or lecture and gotten caught up in your thoughts so that, while the speaker continued, you were no longer listening? During a phone conversation, have you ever been thinking about what you are going to say, or what question you might ask, instead of listening to the other person? Finally, have you ever told yourself how you did after you wrote a document or gave a presentation? As you "talk with yourself” you are engaged in intrapersonal communication.

Intrapersonal communication involves one person; it is often called "self-talk." Donna Vocate's book on intrapersonal communication explains how, as we use language to reflect on our own experiences, we talk ourselves through situations. For example, the voice within you that tells you, "Keep on Going! I can DO IT!" when you are putting your all into completing a five-mile race; or that says, "This report I've written is pretty good." Your intrapersonal communication can be positive or negative, and directly influences how you perceive and react to situations and communication with others. What you perceive in communication with others is also influenced by your culture, native language, and your world view. As the German philosopher Jьrgen Habermas said, "Every process of reaching understanding takes place against the background of a culturally ingrained preunderstanding." For example, you may have certain expectations of time and punctuality. You weren't born with them, so where did you learn them? From those around you as you grew up. What was normal for them became normal for you, but not everyone's idea of normal is the same. When your supervisor invites you to a meeting and says it will start at 7 p. m., does that mean 7: 00 sharp, 7-ish, or even 7: 30? In the business context, when a meeting is supposed to start at 9 a. m., is it promptly a 9 a. m.? Variations in time expectations depend on regional and national culture as well as individual corporate cultures. In some companies, everyone may be expected to arrive ten to fifteen minutes before the announced start time to take their seats and be ready to commence business at 9: 00 sharp. In other companies, "meeting and greeting” from about 9 to 9: 05 or even 9: 10 is the norm. When you are unfamiliar with the expectations for a business event, it is always wise to err on the side of being punctual, regardless of what your internal assumptions about time and punctuality may be. The second major context within the field of communication is interpersonal communication.

перевод клише речевое реферирование аннотирование

Interpersonal communication normally involves two people, and can range from intimate and very personal to formal and impersonal. You may carry on a conversation with a loved one, sharing a serious concern. Later, at work, you may have a brief conversation about plans for the weekend with the security guard on your way home. What's the difference? Both scenarios involve interpersonal communication, but are different in levels of intimacy. The first example implies a trusting relationship established over time between two caring individuals. The second example level implies some previous familiarity, and is really more about acknowledging each other than any actual exchange of information, much like saying hello or goodbye. Have you ever noticed how a small group of people in class sit near each other? Perhaps they are members of the same sports program, or just friends, but no doubt they often engage in group communication. "Group communication is a dynamic process where a small number of people engage in a conversation." Group communication is generally defined as involving three to eight people. The larger the group, the more likely it is to break down into smaller groups. To take a page from marketing, does your audience have segments or any points of convergence/divergence? We could consider factors like age, education, sex, and location to learn more about groups and their general preferences as well as dislikes. You may find several groups within the larger audience, such as specific areas of education, and use this knowledge to increase your effectiveness as a business communicator. In public communication, one person speaks to a group of people; the same is true of public written communication, where one person writes a message to be read by a small or large group. The speaker or writer may ask questions, and engage the audience in a discussion (in writing, examples are an e-mail discussion or a point-counter-point series of letters to the editor), but the dynamics of the conversation are distinct from group communication, where different rules apply. In a public speaking situation, the group normally defers to the speaker. For example, the boss speaks to everyone, and the sales team quietly listens without interruption. This generalization is changing as norms and expectations change, and many cultures have a tradition of "call outs” or interjections that are not to be interpreted as interruptions or competition for the floor, but instead as affirmations. The boss may say, as part of a charged-up motivational speech, "Do you hear me? ” and the sales team is expected to call back "Yes Sir! ” The boss, as a public speaker, recognizes that intrapersonal communication (thoughts of the individual members) or interpersonal communication (communication between team members) may interfere with this classic public speaking dynamic of all to one, or the audience devoting all its attention to the speaker, and incorporate attention getting and engagement strategies to keep the sales team focused on the message. How do you tell everyone on campus where and when all the classes are held? Would a speech from the front steps work? Perhaps it might meet the need if your school is a very small one. A written schedule that lists all classes would be a better alternative. How do you let everyone know there is a sale on in your store, or that your new product will meet their needs, or that your position on a political issue is the same as your constituents? You send a message to as many people as you can through mass communication. Does everyone receive mass communication the same way the might receive a personal phone call? Not likely. Some people who receive mass mailings assume that they are "junk mail” (i. e., that they do not meet the recipients' needs) and throw them away unopened. People may tune out a television advertisement with a click of the mute button, delete tweets or ignore friend requests on Facebook by the hundreds, or send all unsolicited e-mail straight to the spam folder unread. Mass media is a powerful force in modern society and our daily lives, and is adapting rapidly to new technologies.

Mass communication involves sending a single message to a group. It allows us to communicate our message to a large number of people, but we are limited in our ability to tailor our message to specific audiences, groups, or individuals. As a business communicator, you can use multimedia as a visual aid or reference common programs, films, or other images that your audience finds familiar yet engaging. You can tweet a picture that is worth far more than 140 characters, and you are just as likely to elicit a significant response. By choosing messages or references that many audience members will recognize or can identify with, you can develop common ground and increase the appeal of your message. Whenever you speak or write in a business environment, you have certain responsibilities to your audience, your employer, and your profession. Your audience comes to you with an inherent set of expectations that you will fulfill these responsibilities. The specific expectations may change given the context or environment, but two central ideas will remain: be prepared, and be ethical. As the business communicator's first responsibility, preparation includes several facets which we will examine: organization, clarity, and being concise and punctual. Being prepared means that you have selected a topic appropriate to your audience, gathered enough information to cover the topic well, put your information into a logical sequence, and considered how best to present it. If your communication is a written one, you have written an outline and at least one rough draft, read it over to improve your writing and correct errors, and sought feedback where appropriate. If your communication is oral, you have practiced several times before your actual performance. Part of being prepared is being organized. Aristotle called this logos, or logic, and it involves the steps or points that lead your communication to a conclusion. Once you've invested time in researching your topic, you will want to narrow your focus to a few key points and consider how you'll present them. On any given topic there is a wealth of information; your job is to narrow that content down to a manageable level, serving the role of gatekeeper by selecting some information and "de-selecting," or choosing to not include other points or ideas. You also need to consider how to link your main points together for your audience. Use transitions to provide signposts or cues for your audience to follow along. "Now that we've examined X, let's consider Y" is a transitional statement that provides a cue that you are moving from topic to topic. Your listeners or readers will appreciate your being well organized so that they can follow your message from point to point. You have probably had the unhappy experience of reading or listening to a communication that was vague and wandering. Part of being prepared is being clear. If your message is unclear, the audience will lose interest and tune you out, bringing an end to effective communication. Interestingly, clarity begins with intrapersonal communication: you need to have a clear idea in your mind of what you want to say before you can say it clearly to someone else. At the interpersonal level, clarity involves considering your audience, as you will want to choose words and phrases they understand and avoid jargon or slang that may be unfamiliar to them. Clarity also involves presentation. A brilliant message scrawled in illegible handwriting, or in pale gray type on gray paper, will not be clear. When it comes to oral communication, if you mumble your words, speak too quickly or use a monotonous tone of voice, or stumble over certain words or phrases, the clarity of your presentation will suffer. Technology also plays a part; if you are using a microphone or conducting a teleconference, clarity will depend on this equipment functioning properly-which brings us back to the importance of preparation. In this case, in addition to preparing your speech, you need to prepare by testing the equipment ahead of time. Concise means brief and to the point. In most business communications you are expected to "get down to business” right away. Being prepared includes being able to state your points clearly and support them with clear evidence in a relatively straightforward, linear way. It may be tempting to show how much you know by incorporating additional information into your document or speech, but in so doing you run the risk of boring, confusing, or overloading your audience. Talking in circles or indulging in tangents, where you get off topic or go too deep, can hinder an audience's ability to grasp your message. Be to the point and concise in your choice of words, organization, and even visual aids. Being concise also involves being sensitive to time constraints. How many times have you listened to a speaker say "in conclusion” only to continue speaking for what seems like forever? How many meetings and conference calls have you attended that got started late or ran beyond the planned ending time? The solution, of course, is to be prepared to be punctual. If you are asked to give a five-minute presentation at a meeting, your coworkers will not appreciate your taking fifteen minutes, any more than your supervisor would appreciate your submitting a fifteen-page report when you were asked to write five pages. For oral presentations, time yourself when you rehearse and make sure you can deliver your message within the allotted number of minutes. There is one possible exception to this principle. Many non-Western cultures prefer a less direct approach, where business communication often begins with social or general comments that a U. S. audience might consider unnecessary. Some cultures also have a less strict interpretation of time schedules and punctuality. While it is important to recognize that different cultures have different expectations, the general rule holds true that good business communication does not waste words or time. The business communicator's second fundamental responsibility is to be ethical. Ethics refers to a set of principles or rules for correct conduct. It echoes what Aristotle called ethos, the communicator's good character and reputation for doing what is right.communicating ethically involves being egalitarian, respectful, and trustworthy-overall, practicing the "golden rule” of treating your audience the way you would want to be treated.communication can move communities, influence cultures, and change history. It can motivate people to take stand, consider an argument, or purchase a product. The degree to which you consider both the common good and fundamental principles you hold to be true when crafting your message directly relates to how your message will affect others. The word "egalitarian" comes from the root "equal." To be egalitarian is to believe in basic equality: that all people should share equally in the benefits and burdens of a society. It means that everyone is entitled to the same respect, expectations, access to information, and rewards of participation in a group. To communicate in an egalitarian manner, speak and write in a way that is comprehensible and relevant to all your listeners or readers, not just those who are "like you" in terms of age, gender, race or ethnicity, or other characteristics. In business, you will often communicate to people with certain professional qualifications. For example, you may draft a memo addressed to all the nurses in a certain hospital, or give a speech to all the adjusters in a certain branch of an insurance company. Being egalitarian does not mean you have to avoid professional terminology that is understood by nurses or insurance adjusters. But it does mean that your hospital letter should be worded for all the hospital's nurses-not just female nurses, not just nurses working directly with patients, not just nurses under age fifty-five. An egalitarian communicator seeks to unify the audience by using ideas and language that are appropriate for all the message's readers or listeners. People are influenced by emotions as well as logic. Aristotle named pathos, or passion, enthusiasm and energy, as the third of his three important parts of communicating after logos and ethos. Most of us have probably seen an audience manipulated by a "cult of personality,” believing whatever the speaker said simply because of how dramatically he or she delivered a speech; by being manipulative, the speaker fails to respect the audience. We may have also seen people hurt by sarcasm, insults, and other disrespectful forms of communication. This does not mean that passion and enthusiasm are out of place in business communication. Indeed, they are very important. You can hardly expect your audience to care about your message if you don't show that you care about it yourself. If your topic is worth writing or speaking about, make an effort to show your audience why it is worthwhile by speaking enthusiastically or using a dynamic writing style. Doing so, in fact, shows respect for their time and their intelligence. However, the ethical communicator will be passionate and enthusiastic without being disrespectful. Losing one's temper and being abusive are generally regarded as showing a lack of professionalism (and could even involve legal consequences for you or your employer). When you disagree strongly with a coworker, feel deeply annoyed with a difficult customer, or find serious fault with a competitor's product, it is important to express such sentiments respectfully. For example, instead of telling a customer, "I've had it with your complaints! ” a respectful business communicator might say, "I'm having trouble seeing how I can fix this situation. Would you explain to me what you want to see happen? ” Trust is a key component in communication, and this is especially true in business. As a consumer, would you choose to buy merchandise from a company you did not trust? If you were an employer, would you hire someone you did not trust? Your goal as a communicator is to build a healthy relationship with your audience, and to do that you must show them why they can trust you and why the information you are about to give them is believable. One way to do this is to begin your message by providing some information about your qualifications and background, your interest in the topic, or your reasons for communicating at this particular time. Your audience will expect that what you say is the truth as you understand it. This means that you have not intentionally omitted, deleted, or taken information out of context simply to prove your points. They will listen to what you say and how you say it, but also to what you don't say or do. You may consider more than one perspective on your topic, and then select the perspective you perceive to be correct, giving concrete reasons why you came to this conclusion. People in the audience may have considered or believe in some of the perspectives you consider, and your attention to them will indicate you have done your homework. Being worthy of trust is something you earn with an audience. Many wise people have observed that trust is hard to build but easy to lose. A communicator may not know something and still be trustworthy, but it's a violation of trust to pretend you know something when you don't.communicate what you know, and if you don't know something, research it before you speak or write. If you are asked a question to which you don't know the answer, say "I don't know the answer but I will research it and get back to you" (and then make sure you follow through later). This will go over much better with the audience than trying to cover by stumbling through an answer or portraying yourself as knowledgeable on an issue that you are not. When in doubt, remember the "golden rule," which says to treat others the way you would like to be treated. In all its many forms, the golden rule incorporates human kindness, cooperation, and reciprocity across cultures, languages, backgrounds and interests. Regardless of where you travel, who you communicate with, or what your audience is like, remember how you would feel if you were on the receiving end of your communication, and act accordingly. Yet, in the quote above, the famous linguist S.I. Hayakawa wisely observes that meaning lies within us, not in the words we use. Indeed, communication in this text is defined as the process of understanding and sharing meaning. When you communicate you are sharing meaning with one or more other people-this may include members of your family, your community, your work community, your school, or any group that considers itself a group. How do you communicate? How do you think? We use language as a system to create and exchange meaning with one another, and the types of words we use influence both our perceptions and others interpretation of our meanings. What kinds of words would you use to describe your thoughts and feelings, your preferences in music, cars, food, or other things that matter to you? Imagine that you are using written or spoken language to create a bridge over which you hope to transport meaning, much like a gift or package, to your receiver. You hope that your meaning arrives relatively intact, so that your receiver receives something like what you sent. Will the package look the same to them on the receiving end? Will they interpret the package, its wrapping and colors, the way you intended? That depends. What is certain is that they will interpret it based on their framework of experience. The package represents your words arranged in a pattern that both the source (you) and the receiver (your audience) can interpret. The words as a package try to contain the meaning and deliver it intact, but they themselves are not the meaning. That lies within us. So is the package empty? Are the words we use empty? Without us to give them life and meaning, the answer is yes. Knowing what words will correspond to meanings that your audience holds within themselves will help you communicate more effectively. Knowing what meanings lie within you is your door to understanding yourself. Understanding your perspective can lend insight to your awareness, the ability to be conscious of events and stimuli. Awareness determines what you pay attention to, how you carry out your intentions, and what you remember of your activities and experiences each day. Awareness is a complicated and fascinating area of study. The way we take in information, give it order, and assign it meaning has long interested researchers from disciplines including sociology, anthropology, and psychology. Your perspective is a major factor in this dynamic process. Whether you are aware of it or not, you bring to the act of reading this sentence a frame of mind formed from experiences and education across your lifetime. Imagine that you see a presentation about snorkeling in beautiful Hawaii as part of a travel campaign. If you have never been snorkeling but love to swim, how will your perspective lead you to pay attention to the presentation? If, however, you had a traumatic experience as a child in a pool and are now afraid of being under water, how will your perspective influence your reaction? Learning to self and preparing to communicate with others. The communication process itself is the foundation for oral and written communication. Whether we express ourselves in terms of a live, face-to-face conversation or across a voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) chat via audio and visual channels, emoticons (:)), and abbreviations (IMHO [In My Humble Opinion]), the communication process remains the same. Imagine that you are at work and your Skype program makes the familiar noise indicating that someone wants to talk. Your caller ID tells you that it is a friend. You also know that you have the report right in front of you to get done before 5: 00 p. m. Your friend is quite a talker, and for him everything tends to have a "gotta talk about it right now" sense of urgency. You know a little bit about your potential audience or conversational partner. Do you take the call? Perhaps you chat back "Busy, after 5,” only to have him call again. You interpret the ring as his insistent need for attention, but you have priorities. You can choose to close the Skype program, stop the ringing, and get on with your report, but do you? Communication occurs on many levels in several ways. Where we place emphasis, what we focus on, and how we view our potential has a direct impact on our communication interactions. You gather a sense of self as you grow, age, and experience others and the world. At various times in your life, you have probably been praised for some of your abilities and talents, and criticized for doing some things poorly. These compliments and criticisms probably had a deep impact on you. Much of what we know about ourselves we've learned through interaction with others. Not everyone has had positive influences in their lives, and not every critic knows what they are talking about, but criticism and praise still influence how and what we expect from ourselves. Carol Dweck, a psychology researcher at Stanford University, states that "something that seems like a small intervention can have cascading effects on things we think of as stable or fixed, including extroversion, openness to new experience, and resilience.

Дип Импакт (англ. Deep Impact) - космический аппарат НАСА, предназначенный для изучения кометы Темпеля 1. Аппарат впервые в истории сбросил на комету зонд, который протаранил её поверхность, предварительно сфотографировав её с близкого расстояния.
Стэ́нфордский университе́т, также Ста́нфордский университет (англ. Stanford University; полное название англ. Leland Stanford Junior University, Университет им. Леланда Стэнфорда-младшего) - частный университет в США, один из самых авторитетных и рейтинговых в США и в мире.
" Your personality and expressions of it, like oral and written communication, were long thought to have a genetic component. But, says Dweck, "More and more research is suggesting that, far from being simply encoded in the genes, much of personality is a flexible and dynamic thing that changes over the life span and is shaped by experience. ” If you were told by someone that you were not a good speaker, know this: You can change. You can shape your performance through experience, and a business communication course, a mentor at work, or even reading effective business communication authors can result in positive change. When you consider what makes you you, the answers multiply as do the questions. As a baby, you learned to recognize that the face in the mirror was your face. But as an adult, you begin to wonder what and who you are. While we could discuss the concept of self endlessly and philosophers have wrestled and will continue to wrestle with it, for our purposes, let's focus on self, which is defined as one's own sense of individuality, motivations, and personal characteristics. We also must keep in mind that this concept is not fixed or absolute; instead it changes as we grow and change across our lifetimes. One point of discussion useful for our study about ourselves as communicators is to examine our attitudes, beliefs, and values. These are all interrelated, and researchers have varying theories as to which comes first and which springs from another. We learn our values, beliefs, and attitudes through interaction with others. An attitude is your immediate disposition toward a concept or an object. Attitudes can change easily and frequently. You may prefer vanilla while someone else prefers peppermint, but if someone tries to persuade you of how delicious peppermint is, you may be willing to try it and find that you like it better than vanilla. Beliefs are ideas based on our previous experiences and convictions and may not necessarily be based on logic or fact. You no doubt have beliefs on political, economic, and religious issues. These beliefs may not have been formed through rigorous study, but you nevertheless hold them as important aspects of self. Beliefs often serve as a frame of reference through which we interpret our world. Although they can be changed, it often takes time or strong evidence to persuade someone to change a belief. Values are core concepts and ideas of what we consider good or bad, right or wrong, or what is worth the sacrifice. Our values are central to our self-image, what makes us who we are. Like beliefs, our values may not be based on empirical research or rational thinking, but they are even more resistant to change than are beliefs. To undergo a change in values, a person may need to undergo a transformative life experience. For example, suppose you highly value the freedom to make personal decisions, including the freedom to choose whether or not to wear a helmet while driving a motorcycle. This value of individual c hoice is central to your way of thinking and you are unlikely to change this value. However, if your brother was driving a motorcycle without a helmet and suffered an accident that fractured his skull and left him with permanent brain damage, you might reconsider this value. While you might still value freedom of choice in many areas of life, you might become an advocate for helmet laws-and perhaps also for other forms of highway safety, such as stiffer penalties for cell-phone talking and texting while driving. Your self-concept is composed of two main elements: self-image and self-esteem. Your self-image is how you see yourself, how you would describe yourself to others. It includes your physical characteristics-your eye color, hair length, height, and so forth. It also includes your knowledge, experience, interests, and relationships. What is your image of yourself as a communicator? How do you feel about your ability to communicate? While the two responses may be similar, they indicate different things. Your self-esteem is how you feel about yourself; your feelings of self-worth, self-acceptance, and self-respect.

Healthy self-esteem can be particularly important when you experience a setback or a failure. Instead of blaming yourself or thinking, "I'm just no good," high self-esteem will enable you to persevere and give yourself positive messages like "If I prepare well and try harder, I can do better next time." Putting your self-image and self-esteem together yields your self-concept: your central identity and set of beliefs about who you are and what you are capable of accomplishing. When it comes to communicating, your self-concept can play an important part. You may find that communicating is a struggle, or the thought of communicating may make you feel talented and successful. Either way, if you view yourself as someone capable of learning new skills and improving as you go, you will have an easier time learning to be an effective communicator. Whether positive or negative, your self-concept influences your performance and the expression of that essential ability: communication. In addition to how we view ourselves and feel about ourselves, of course, we often take into consideration the opinions and behavior of others. Charles Cooley's looking-glass self-reinforces how we look to others and how they view us, treat us, and interact with us to gain insight of our identity. We place an extra emphasis on parents, supervisors, and on those who have some degree of control over us when we look at others. Developing a sense of self as a communicator involves balance between constructive feedback from others and constructive self-affirmation. You judge yourself, as others do, and both views count. Now, suppose that you are treated in an especially encouraging manner in one of your classes. Imagine that you have an instructor who continually "catches you doing something right" and praises you for your efforts and achievements. Would you be likely to do well in this class and perhaps go on to take more advanced courses in this subject? In a psychology experiment that has become famous through repeated trials, several public school teachers were told that specific students in their classes were expected to do quite well because of their intelligence. These students were identified as having special potential that had not yet "bloomed. ” What the teachers didn't know was that these "special potential" students were randomly selected. That's right: as a group, they had no more special potential than any other students. Can you anticipate the outcome? As you may guess, the students lived up to their teachers' level of expectation. Even though the teachers were supposed to give appropriate attention and encouragement to all students, in fact they unconsciously communicated special encouragement verbally and nonverbally to the special potential students. And these students, who were actually no more gifted than their peers, showed significant improvement by the end of the school year. This phenomenon came to be called the "Pygmalion effect” after the myth of a Greek sculptor named Pygmalion, who carved a marble statue of a woman so lifelike that he fell in love with her-and in response to his love she did in fact come to life and marry him. In more recent studies, researchers have observed that the opposite effect can also happen: when students are seen as lacking potential, teachers tend to discourage them or, at a minimum, fail to give them adequate encouragement. As a result, the students do poorly. When people encourage you, it affects the way you see yourself and your potential. Seek encouragement for your writing and speaking. Actively choose positive reinforcement as you develop your communication skills. You will make mistakes, but the important thing is to learn from them. Keep in mind that criticism should be constructive, with specific points you can address, correct, and improve. The concept of a self-fulfilling prophecy, in which someone's behavior comes to match and mirror others' expectations, is not new. Robert Rosenthal, a professor of social psychology at Harvard, has observed four principles while studying this interaction between expectations and performance:

1. We form certain expectations of people or events.

2. We communicate those expectations with various cues, verbal and nonverbal.

3. People tend to respond to these cues by adjusting their behavior to match the expectations.

4. The outcome is that the original expectation becomes true.

Effective business communication skills are vital to successful co-worker and customer interactions. Both the speaker and the listener share responsibility of making the message clear, but effective communication goes far beyond simple speech and hearing. Body language, tone of voice, word choice, message clarification and communication style all come into play, and can make the difference between success and failure in interpersonal transactions and interactions.


Глоссарий

Self-concept - самооценка

Clarification - прояснение

Communication proficiencies - навыки общения

Asset-ценный вклад

Rambunctious-бурный

Stuffy-душный

Intentions-намерения

Self-affirmation-самоутверждение

Prophecy-предсказание

Оглавление статьи - "Эффективная бизнес коммуникация" ("Effective Business Communication")

Автор статьи Скотт МакЛин (ScottMcLean). Эффективная бизнес коммуникация является жизненно важным навыком для успешного взаимодействия в деловых кругах. Чтобы стать эффективным коммуникатором, необходимо знать факторы, эмоции, окружающую среду, невербальную коммуникацию, которые могут повлиять на собеседника, уметь правильно задавать вопросы и отвечать на них, уметь убеждать, последовательно излагать свои мысли, влиять, внимательно слушать и слышать, иметь обратную связь и избегать конфликтных ситуаций.
Невербальное общение (жестовое общение, язык тела)- это коммуникационное взаимодействие между индивидами без использования слов (передача информации или влияние друг на друга через образы, интонации, жесты, мимику, пантомимику, изменение мизансцены общения), то есть без речевых и языковых средств, представленных в прямой или какой-либо знаковой форме.
Коммуникация - это ключ к успеху в жизни человека. Она влияет на отношения с окружающими и в семье, карьеру, самооценку человека и то, как он видит весь мир и каким видят его. Общаясь, человек узнает себя, исследуя все грани своего сознания, одновременно с этим он учится понимать других людей - не только их речь, но и тон голоса, жесты, мысли, цели, культурные ценности и многое другое. Коммуникация создает первое впечатление о человеке. Огромную роль умение эффективно общаться играет в карьерном росте человека. Устные и письменные навыки общения, трудовая этика, командный дух, инициативность и аналитические навыки - эти качества бесценны для рынка труда. Для начала необходимо понять, что такое коммуникация и как она работает. Коммуникация определяется как процесс понимания и обмена информацией. Первым из аспектов процесса является понимание, оно отражает то, как мы воспринимаем речь, интерпретируем ее и соотносим с нашим восприятием. Второй аспект - это разделять с кем-то коммуникацию, обычно в ней участвует два и более человека, но коммуникация возможна и с самим собой, когда вы обдумываете что-то, размышляете или решаете проблему. И третий - смысл, который мы слышим в каждом слове, составляет картину в целом того, как мы понимаем сказанное. Помимо 3 аспектов, коммуникация содержит 8 основных элементов: источник, сообщение, канал, получатель, обратная связь, окружающая среда, контекст, помехи. В статье анализируется каждый аспект и элемент коммуникации с наглядными примерами, объясняя тем самым, что коммуникация невозможна без хотя бы одного элемента и все является взаимосвязанным. В статье также рассматривается пять видов общения: внутриличностное, межличностное, групповое общение, публичное и массовое. Внутриличностное представляет собой коммуникацию человека с самим собой и напрямую влияет на то, как он воспринимает и реагирует на ситуации и коммуникацию с другими. Межличностное общение, в основном, включает в себя два человека и может варьироваться от интимного и очень личного до формального и безличного. Отличаются они уровнем близости. Групповое общение предполагает вовлечение от3 до 8 человек. Публичная коммуникация представляет собой выступление одного человека перед группой людей. Это может быть как устное выступление, так и письменное обращение. Спикер может задавать вопросы, вступать в обсуждение с слушателями. Массовая коммуникация - это передача сообщения такому количеству человек, какое только возможно.
Массовая коммуникация (англ. mass communication) - процесс производства и воспроизводства массового сознания средствами массовой коммуникации (СМК) - сначала периодической печатью, радио и телевидением, а затем и другими средствами электронной коммуникации.
В связи с этим не все люди воспринимают его как следует, часто игнорируя. Поэтому необходимо выбрать правильный подход, с помощью которого удастся найти общий язык с аудиторией и повысить уровень привлекательности своего сообщения для них. Когда вы говорите в деловой среде, есть определённая ответственность перед аудиторией, работодателем и вашей профессией. Аудитория приходит к Вам с присущими им ожиданиями, что вы будете выполнять ваши обязанности. Ожидания могут различаться в зависимости от контекста и окружающей среды, но два остаются главными: будьте подготовлены и этичны. Для успешного бизнес-коммуникатора есть определенные клише: организованность, ясность, лаконичность, пунктуальность. Сообщение должно быть логичным, ясным, чтобы каждый мог понять, кратким, чтобы не потерять внимание аудитории, пунктуальным, чтобы не тратить больше времени, чем рассчитано. Тем не менее, отмечается, что во многих культурах особое отношение ко времени, началу бизнес разговора и расписаниям. Помимо этого, необходимо помнить золотое правило - относись к людям так, как хочешь, чтобы относились к тебе. Страсть и энтузиазм также важны для успешной коммуникации. Если сам спикер не заинтересован в своей речи, вряд ли ему удастся заинтересовать других. Людей восхищает, когда человек способен манипулировать аудиторией тем, как он преподносит свое сообщение. Очень важно для хорошего взаимопонимания с аудиторией доверие, которого можно добиться благодаря правдивости своей речи и уверенности в своих словах. Если вам задают вопрос, ответ на который вы не знаете, лучше всего сказать, что вы обязательно его изучите, нежели пытаться делать вид, что вы осведомлены в нем. Успешное деловое общение часто ассоциируется с хорошей устной и письменной речью и умением владеть и четко ее формулировать. В статье затрагивается тема осознания смысла услышанного и сказанного, что помогает понять других и себя. Также оказывает воздействие на коммуникацию точка зрения человека на окружающий мир, поскольку именно она влияет на его восприятие. В свою очередь с самых ранних лет, критика и похвала сказываются на личности и коммуникации ее с людьми. Личность человека, как долго полагалось, не имеет генетического компонента, она, скорее, изменяется в течение жизни и формируется с опытом.
Деловое общение - вид общения, цель которого лежит за пределами процесса общения и которое подчинено решению определенной задачи (производственной, научной, коммерческой и т. д.) исходя из общих интересов и целей коммуникантов.
Зрение человека Зрение человека (зрительное восприятие) - способность человека воспринимать информацию путём преобразования энергии электромагнитного излучения светового диапазона, осуществляемая зрительной системой.
Ли́чность - понятие, выработанное для отображения социальной природы человека, рассмотрения его как субъекта социокультурной жизни, определения его как носителя индивидуального начала, самораскрывающегося в контексте социальных отношений, общения и предметной деятельности.
Много внимания в статье уделено тому, что мы узнаем наши ценности, убеждения и взгляды путем взаимодействия с окружающими. Взгляд или отношение человека - это его непосредственное расположение к объекту, которое может легко и часто меняться. Убеждения строятся на жизненном опыте и служат основой интерпретации мира, поменять их возможно, однако необходимо время и веские доказательства. Ценности человека занимают центральное место в его самооценке и делают его тем, кем он является. Чтобы их изменить, человеку необходимо пережить событие, которое бы изменило его ценности. Подчеркивается, что Я-концепция человека базируется на двух основах: самооценка и чувство собственного достоинства, которые непременно влияют на умение человека общаться.
Достоинство - уважение и самоуважение человеческой личности как морально-нравственная категория.
Чем выше его самооценка, тем больше он уверен, что может освоить новые навыки, чтобы быть эффективным коммуникатором. Самооценку человека также могут менять окружающие, видя в человеке потенциал, вдохновляя его - повышать ее и наоборот. В статье исследуется концепция самоисполняющегося предсказания, основанного на 4 основных пунктах:

1. Мы формируем определенные ожидания относительно людей или событий.

2. Мы связываем эти ожидания с различными сигналами, вербальными и невербальными.

3. Люди, как правило, реагируют на эти сигналы, регулируя их поведение, чтобы соответствовать ожиданиям.

4. Результат - то, что оригинальное ожидание становится верным.

Данный материал является очень актуальным, потому как умение вести коммуникацию остается актуальным всегда. Руководителям и менеджерам организаций, и просто рядовым сотрудникам очень важно развить в себе умения и навыки эффективной коммуникации и межличностного общения, способность к концентрации внимания. Также необходимо улучшать работу своей памяти, для того чтобы преуспеть в работе с большими потоками данных и управлять информацией, повысить свою работоспособность и использовать скрытые ресурсыинтеллекта для решения задач бизнеса. Текст рассчитан для людей делового круга и для тех, кто планирует работать в сфере бизнеса и должен уметь конструктивно вести переговоры и преодолевать кросс культурные барьеры.

2. Аннотирование

Аннотация статьи "Язык тела и этикет в бизнесе"

В статье излагаются основные правила невербальной коммуникации и секреты языка тела для построения доверительных отношений с партнерами, а также бизнес этикет, знание которого обеспечит максимально положительное расположение к себе и успех в деловом общении.

Ключевые слова: язык тела, невербальная коммуникация, поведение, аура, осанка, рукопожатие, зрительный контакт, улыбки, бизнес этикет, визитка, бизнес-письмо, бизнес-ланч, манеры, телефонный бизнес - разговор.

Глоссарий

Tilt - наклонять

Standoffish - сдержанный

Demeanor - поведение

Slouch - сутулиться

Rectangle - прямоугольник

Grip - хватка

Upbeat - оживленный

Pristinecondition - идеальное состояние

King Regards - Суважением

Commonsensical - разумный

Goblet - бокал

Thoughtlessness - недомыслие

Jeopardize - рисковать

Pleasurable - доставляющий удовольствие

Two-fisted-неуклюжий

Body language and etiquette in business

Has it ever occurred to you how much you are saying to people even when you are not speaking? Unless you are a master of disguise, you are constantly sending messages about your true thoughts and feelings whether you are using words or not. Studies show that your words account for only 7% of the messages you convey. The remaining 93% is non-verbal. 55% of communication is based on what people see and the other 38% is transmitted through tone of voice. So think about it. In the business setting, people can see what you are not saying. If your body language doesn't match your words, you are wasting your time. Eye contact is the most obvious way you communicate. When you are looking at the other person, you show interest. When you fail to make eye contact, you give the impression that the other person is of no importance. Maintain eye contact about 60% of the time in order to look interested, but not aggressive. Facial expression is another form of non-verbal communication. A smile sends a positive message and is appropriate in all but a life and death situation. Smiling adds warmth and an aura of confidence. Others will be more receptive if you remember to check your expression. Your mouth gives clues, too, and not just when you are speaking. Mouth movements, such as pursing your lips or twisting them to one side, can indicate that you are thinking about what you are hearing or that you are holding something back. The position of your head speaks to people. Keeping your head straight, which is not the same as keeping your head on straight, will make you appear self-assured and authoritative. People will take you seriously. Tilt your head to one side if you want to come across as friendly and open. How receptive you are is suggested by where you place your arms. Arms crossed or folded over your chest say that you have shut other people out and have no interest in them or what they are saying. This position can also say, "I don't agree with you." You might just be cold, but unless you shiver at the same time, the person in front of you may get the wrong message. How you use your arms can help or hurt your image as well. Waving them about may show enthusiasm to some, but others see this gesture as one of uncertainty and immaturity. The best place for your arms is by your side. You will look confident and relaxed. If this is hard for you, do what you always do when you want to get better at something - practice. After a while, it will feel natural. The angle of your body gives an indication to others about what's going through your head. Leaning in says, "Tell me more." Leaning away signals you've heard enough. Adding a nod of your head is another way to affirm that you are listening. Posture is just as important as your grandmother always said it was. Sit or stand erect if you want to be seen as alert and enthusiastic. When you slump in your chair or lean on the wall, you look tired. No one wants to do business with someone who has no energy. Control your hands by paying attention to where they are. In the business world, particularly when you deal with people from other cultures, your hands need to be seen. That would mean you should keep them out of your pockets and you should resist the urge to put them under the table or behind your back. Having your hands anywhere above the neck, fidgeting with your hair or rubbing your face, is unprofessional. Legs talk, too. A lot of movement indicates nervousness. How and where you cross them tells others how you feel. The preferred positions for the polished professional are feet flat on the floor or legs crossed at the ankles. The least professional and most offensive position is resting one leg or ankle on top of your other knee. Some people call this the "Figure Four." It can make you look arrogant. The distance you keep from others is crucial if you want to establish good rapport. Standing too close or "in someone's face" will mark you as pushy. Positioning yourself too far away will make you seem standoffish. Neither is what you want so find the happy medium. Most importantly, do what makes the other person feel comfortable. If the person with whom you are speaking keeps backing away from you, stop. Either that person needs space or you need a breath mint. You may not be aware of what you are saying with your body, but others will get the message. Make sure it's the one you want to send. Your body language, i. e your demeanor, impacts your success. It's vital that you know how to act when you get to a conference, after-hours, meeting or trade show to make the most effective and efficient use of your time. and to attract those people whom you want to do with business with and add to your network. The success of any encounter begins the moment someone lays eyes on you. One of the first things they notice about you is your aura, that distinctive atmosphere that surrounds you. You create it, and you are responsible for what it says about you and whom it attracts. Your aura enters with you and starts speaking long before your open your mouth. Since body language conveys more than half of any message in any face-to-face encounter, how you act is vital to your aura.

1) Posture One of the first key things people notice is how you carry and present yourself. Do you walk and stand with confidence like your mother taught you?

· Stomach in

· Chest out

· Shoulders back

· Head up

Or do you slouch, perhaps with your shoulders drooping, your head forward and your stomach protruding? Are you saying to people that you are not sure of yourself are not poised and, therefore, not the one they should seek out and get to know? You may be turning people away without even being aware of it.command respect by standing tall and claiming the space to which you are entitled. Plant your feet about six to eight inches apart with one slightly in front of the others. My workshop attendees always remark about how this positioning makes them feel "grounded," "rooted" and "balanced". great ways to start any encounter! You also tell people through your posture if you are want others to approach you. For instance, if you are talking with one other person and the two of you are forming a rectangle, you will give the message that you have "closed off" your space and don't want to be interrupted. If you doubt me, stand by two people who are in the rectangular position and see how long you go unacknowledged. The two will see you out of their peripheral vision, but won't include you until they have finished their "private" conversation. If, on the other hand, the two of you stand with your feet pointed outward like two sides of an incomplete triangle, you will be inviting others into the conversation. You can make that all-important eye contact.

2) Handshakes Another vital component you need to bring to any interpersonal encounter is a firm handshake. Again, those few seconds you "shake" can empower or weaken a relationship. Men's handshakes are typically strong and firm because they naturally have a stronger grip. Women, get a grip and be noticed! I once got a client because the man I shook hands with remarked about my strong handshake and asked what I did. He decided it was time to hire me to teach his people how to shake hands, too! Being familiar with the following handshakes will help you immensely in your relationship-building activities:

Controller A person extends his hand to you, web-to-web, and as soon as your hands are linked, he purposely maneuvers his hand onto the top. He's telling you he wants to be in charge. Keep that in mind as the interaction continues.

Sandwich Use this one only with people you know. When you envelop another person's hands, you are invading their private space. where you are to be only when invited. Society promotes the standard handshake but is not as tolerant of using both hands. By the way, this handshake is also known as the politician's handshake. which may be cause enough for most people to avoid it!

Imagine rubbing a scaly, dead fish in your hands. and you got the picture. Your hands typically are wet for two reasons: You are nervous or you have been holding a cold beverage in your right hand and move it to your left just before you shake hands. In either case, it is extremely unpleasant for the receiver. If you experience anxiety, wipe your hands on a napkin, the tablecloth or even lightly on your clothes. What you spend at the dry cleaners will be paid for quickly by the better impression you make. As for the beverage, use common sense.

Women, far more than men, extend their fingers rather than their entire hand. It can be painful for the extender, when she is greeted by a man who shakes with his forceful grip. Men tell me this frequently leads to their giving women a lighter handshake. Professional women respond that they want to be treated equally. One of the ways to combat this syndrome is to always extend you full hand (never cup it) horizontally, even if your grip is light.

Ingredients of a good handshake

· Hold the person's hand firmly.

· Shake web-to-web, three times maximum.

· Maintain constant eye contact.

· Radiate positive aura.

3) Eye contact Make it and keep it! Not only does focused eye contact display confidence on your part, it also helps you understand what the other person is really saying verbally.

When the eyes say one thing, and the tongue another, a practiced man relies on the language of the first. - RalphWaldo Emerson

Looking someone in the eye as you meet and talk with him/her also shows you are paying attention. Listening is the most important human relations skill, and good eye contact plays a large part in conveying our interest in others. Begin as soon as you engage someone in a conversation. However, you may wish to start even earlier if you are trying to get someone's attention. Continue it throughout the conversation. Be sure to maintain direct eye contact as you are saying "good-bye." It will help leave a positive, powerful lasting impression. Imagine an inverted triangle in your face with the base of it just above your eyes. The other two sides descend from it and come to a point between your nose and your lips. That's the suggested area to "look at" during business conversations. Socially, the point of the triangle drops to include the chin and neck areas. When people look you "up and down," it's probably more than business or a casual social situation they have in mind! I suggest about 80 - 90 percent of the time. Less than that can be interpreted as discomfort, evasiveness, lack of confidence or boredom. When you stare longer, it can be construed as being too direct, dominant or forceful and make the other person uncomfortable. It's okay to glance down occasionally as long as your gaze returns quickly to the other person. Avoid looking over the other person's shoulders as if you were seeking out someone more interesting to talk with.

4) Smiles are an important facial expression. They show interest, excitement, empathy, concern; they create an upbeat, positive environment. Smiles can, however, be overused. Often, men smile when they are pleased; women smile to please. You know which is the most powerful! To gain and increase respect, first establish your presence in a room, then smile. It is far more professional than to enter a room giggling or "all smiles. "As you review and tweak your body language for your next interpersonal encounter, I suggest you keep in mind another Emerson saying: "What you are stands over you the while and thunders so that I cannot hear what you say to the contrary".

Business etiquette is about building relationships with other people. Etiquette is not about rules & regulations but is about providing basic social comfort and creating an environment where others feel comfortable and secure, this is possible through better communication. Social media communication platforms (i. e. Facebook, LinkedIn) are evolving rapidly day by day, as the concept of social media etiquette becomes a crucial part of business. Business etiquette consists of two things. Firstly, thoughtful consideration of the interests and feelings of others and secondly, being able to minimize misunderstandings. These are influenced by individual behavior & demeanor. Business etiquette instructs this behavior. Business etiquette differs from region to region and from country to country. This creates a complex situation for people as it is hard to balance the focus on both international business etiquette and other business activities at the same time. Therefore, a wise step is to focus on some key pillars of business etiquette. When doing business abroad it is important to understand the local culture. Culture includes areas such as a country's norms, values, behaviors, food, architecture, fashion and art. However, one area of culture that is important for the international business person is etiquette. Understanding business etiquette allows you to feel comfortable in your dealings with foreign friends, colleagues, customers or clients. Knowing what to do and say in the right places will help build trust and open lines of communication. One aspect of etiquette that is of great importance internationally is the exchanging of business cards. Unlike in North America or Europe where the business card has little meaning other than a convenient form of capturing essential personal details, in other parts of the world the business card has very different meanings. For example, in Japan the business card is viewed as a representation of the owner. Therefore proper business etiquette demands one treats the business card with respect and honor. Below we have provided you with a few examples of international business card exchange etiquette that may help you on your business trips abroad.

· Business cards are an internationally recognized means of presenting personal contact details, so ensure you have a plentiful supply.

· Demonstrating good business etiquette is merely a means of presenting yourself as best you can. Failure to adhere to foreign business etiquette does not always have disastrous consequences.

· When travelling abroad for business it is advisable to have one side of your business card translated into the appropriate language.

· Business cards are generally exchanged at the beginning of or at the end of an initial meeting.

· Good business etiquette requires you present the card so the recipient's language is face up.

· Make a point of studying any business card, commenting on it and clarifying information before putting it away.

Business card etiquette in China

· Have one side of your business card translated into Chinese using simplified Chinese characters that are printed in gold ink since gold is an auspicious colour.

· Ensure the translation is carried out into the appropriate Chinese dialect, i. e. Cantonese or Mandarin.

· Your business card should include your title. If your company is the oldest or largest in your country, that fact should be highlighted on your card.

· Hold the card in both hands when offering it.

· Never write on someone's card unless so directed.

Business card etiquette in India

· If you have a university degree or any honour, put it on your business card.

· Always use the right hand to give and receive business cards.

· Business cards need not be translated into Hindi as English is widely spoken within the business community.

Business card etiquette in Japan

· Business cards are exchanged with great ceremony.

· Invest in quality cards.

· Always keep your business cards in pristine condition.

· Treat the business card you receive as you would the person.

· Make sure your business card includes your title. The Japanese place emphasis on status and hierarchy.

· Business cards are always received with two hands but can be given with only one.

· During a meeting, place the business cards on the table in front of you in the order people are seated.

· When the meeting is over, put the business cards in a business card case or a portfolio.

Business card etiquette in the UK

· Business card etiquette is relaxed in the UK and involves little ceremony.

· It is not considered bad etiquette to keep cards in a pocket.

· Business cards should be kept clean and presentable.

· Do not feel obliged to hand out a business card to everyone you meet as it is not expected.

Business etiquette is fundamentally concerned with building relationships founded upon courtesy and politeness between business personnel. Etiquette, and especially business etiquette, is a means of maximizing your potential by presenting yourself positively. Writing a business letter is not simply a matter of expressing your ideas clearly. The way you write a letter and the etiquette you employ may have a significant impact on your success or failure in business. Failure to observe correct business letter etiquette can result in you adopting an inappropriate tone, causing offense or misunderstandings, lack of clarity or purpose and hostility or soured relations. The foundation of good business letter etiquette is 'Think before you write'. You should be considering who the letter is addressed to, how and why? This will then influence style, content and structure. Here we cover some of the main issues relating to good business letter etiquette:

Always make sure you have spelt the recipient's name correctly. It may sound simple, but you would be surprised at how many people fail to do so. The recipient's name should include titles, honors or qualifications if deemed necessary. Many people use the 'Dear Sir/Yours Faithfully' formula when addressing the receiver. Although this is acceptable for routine matters it is impersonal and should not be used when dealing with those you know, queries or complaints. With these the 'Dear Mr…. /Yours Sincerely' formula should be adopted. Once a certain level of familiarity is reached it is not considered bad etiquette to use phrases such as 'Kind Regards' or 'All the best' at the end of the letter. If the content of the letter is sensitive, personal or confidential it must be marked appropriately. Marking the letter 'confidential' will suffice in highlighting this fact. If you only want the letter read by the receiver without the interception of a secretary or PA, mark it as 'Private', 'Personal' or 'Strictly Confidential'. If you have received such a business letter it is good etiquette to reciprocate and ensure that all future correspondence is kept at that level of confidentiality. Proper business letter etiquette requires that a consistent and clear approach, combined with courtesy, be employed. As a rule of thumb, aim to keep all business letters formal in style. Even when the receiver is familiar to you, it is advisable maintain a certain level of business etiquette as the letter may be seen by others or referred to by a third party in the future. However, this does not mean you should use long or uncommon words to express yourself. This merely looks odd and makes the letter unreadable. It is best to read a letter first and consider whether you would speak to that person face to face in the same way. If not, then re-write it. Letters should be signed personally. It looks unprofessional, cold and somewhat lazy if a letter is left unsigned. However, having a secretary or PA sign on your behalf is not considered a breach of business etiquette. Humor can be used in business letters but only when the writer is completely positive the recipient will understand the joke or pun. From a business etiquette perspective it may be wise to avoid humor. This is because firstly, the letter may be read during a crisis, after receiving bad news or on a somber occasion. Any other time the humor may have been appreciated but under these circumstances it may dramatically backfire. Secondly, the written word is open to misinterpretation. Your sarcastic or ironic remark may be taken the wrong way. Thirdly, it is possible that the letter may be read by a third party who may deem the humor inappropriate and pursue a complaint of some sort. Good business letter etiquette calls for letters to be responded to promptly or within certain guidelines. This may normally be considered as 5 working days. If this is not possible then some sort of acknowledgement should be sent either by letter, fax, phone or e-mail. Always use reference numbers or clearly state the purpose of the letter at the top, for example, 'Re: Business Letter Etiquette Enquiry'. This allows the receiver to trace correspondence and immediately set your letter within a context. When replying to points or questions the proper etiquette is to respond in the same order as they were asked. Letters are often an arena for conflicts or disputes. Even in these circumstances there are rules of business letter etiquette that should be adhered to.

If you initiate the dispute then,

1) Explain and set out your case simply and clearly to the most appropriate person,

2) Offer information that may be required by the other party to help answer questions,

3) Indicate a time scale by which you expect a reply or the matter to be resolved.

If you are receiving the dispute then 1) inform senior colleagues who may be affected or who may be able to offer assistance,

2) Submit all replies in draft form for a senior colleague to check,

3) Stick to the facts and the merits of the case and do not allow emotions to become involved,

4) Be polite, patient and courteous.

Using business etiquette in all matters and especially in business letters will ensure you communicate effectively, avoid misunderstandings and maximize your business potential. Knowing what to do when meeting a prospective client for lunch, or going to lunch with the boss or colleague can be confusing at times. Here is a quick list of items to remember:

1. Be in the present moment with whoever you are with. Limit glancing around the room. It's a sign that you are looking for something better. There is nothing worse than having a conversation with someone who is half there.

2. Being on time. This sounds so commonsensical. The percentage of people being late is over 65 percent. Don't push your time to the last minute before leaving the office so you will be late. Take some reading or work with you, arrive early, sit in the lobby, and work. Or give yourself some space to think over how you want to approach the time together. You introduction, tone, style, or even plan a quick get away if the union isn't working. The memory implant of your lateness will always override any request for forgiveness.

3. Turn off your cell phone before entering the restaurant. No one around you wants to hear your conversation. Even if you let it ring, pick it up and then take it outside. Did you leave your lunch companion alone? This is just plain rude. If you have an "I don't care attitude" about this, I'll tell you a story about a lunch guest of mine who did this and the three prospects she was meeting didn't even sit down. They saw her talk, she waved a 1-minute finger single to them, and they turned around and walked out. They wouldn't even answer her phone calls or emails afterwards.

4. If you are woman and this is business, it's appropriate now to stand up and shake the hand of a male. This overrides the old rule of staying seated. If the meeting is for your spouse's business and you are coming along because other spouses are coming, then you stay seated as your spouse stands up. This rule applies for either gender.

5. Offer your hand and give a firm handshake. Sometimes, people who don't like to shake hands will not meet yours. Don't think anything of it if they don't, this is just their preference. And particularly don't say something cute or funny.

6. Think of an opening statement to make as you are shaking hands. This is part of your first impression, so make it good. Always use the guest's first name either at the beginning or at the end of the statement. For example, "Thank you for taking the time to get together today, Catherine." When needing to complete a group of introductions, highest rank rules over gender.

7. Small talk is important--don't leave it out. The length of time for small talk depends on many factors. If you are in the presence of famous or very rich people and not in a social setting, then the small talk, if any, is going to be quick and short. It could be as short as one or two sentences. People who know how much their time is worth, or who are doing you a favor by being there, also fall into this category.

8. Aha, who picks up the tab? If you did the inviting, you are responsible for the check. No matter how more well-off they are. If a joint meeting, ask at the beginning or when scheduling the lunch on check splitting. Waiting until the check arrives to state the check splitting is a sign of professional weakness. If you are meeting with someone who is giving you valuable advice, you must pick up the tab. A personal handwritten follow-up note is also appropriate. If they have saved or helped you make more money, send them a gift or gift certificate. If you don't you will never get any more of their time again. This has occurred to me, and the person never gets any time again.

9. Where does the napkin go? Immediately after sitting, place the napkin in your lap. If you notice the napkin is in the goblet, this is usually a signal from the restaurant that the server will place the napkin into your lap. If you excuse yourself during the meal, place the napkin on the left hand side of your plate or on the chair. This signals the server that you aren't done. When done, place napkin on the right of the plate and your fork and knife horizontally across the plate to signal the server.

10. What to eat and use first? Which glass or which fork can be confusing? Bread and salad plates always to the left, drinking glasses to the right. Utensils start from the outside in and the dessert fork is by the dessert plate. Lay your fork and knife across your plate to signal the server you're finished.

Today's job applicants are encountering a lack of courtesy from job interviewers that is all too common. Businesses are flooded with applicants for every opening, and many are showing a lack of respect for job seekers by failing to respond to their applications. Most employers request resumes and other documentation be sent by e-mail. Occasionally they use the old-fashioned method-the anonymous post office box. The huge volume of applications makes it seem difficult to respond personally to each one. However, the technology is there to reply to all. Most e-mail programs have the ability to send an automatic response letting applicants know that their information has been received and how and when they will be notified of an interview or the lack of one. If the application is handled through postal mail, a generic letter can be generated and sent out with the same details. There is no excuse for leaving applicants in the dark. Following an interview, employers continue their thoughtlessness. Applicants are told they will be contacted within a certain time, but it never happens. With the search narrowed, the number of calls or letters should be manageable. People who reach this level in the interview process deserve a follow-up. They need to know if the position has been filled or if the process is continuing. Consider it public relations for the organization. The person who applies for the job and is treated shabbily by an organization has friends and acquaintances whom they are likely to tell. Furthermore, that applicant may one day be an influential businessperson with a long memory when it comes to choosing business connections. Job seekers are customers, too, and should receive the same level of customer service as everyone else. Doing business over meals is a ritual that has existed for centuries. Taking clients to breakfast, lunch or dinner has long been an effective way to build relationships, make the sale or seal the deal. These business meals are essentially business meetings. Knowledge of your product or your service is crucial to the success of the meeting, but so are your manners. Too many people jeopardize an opportunity because they fail to use good dining etiquette. Here are a few basic rules to make the experience pleasurable and profitable. Know your duties as the host. You are in charge-it is up to you to see that things go well and that your guests are comfortable. You need to attend to every detail from extending the invitation to paying the bill. Plan ahead when you issue the invitation. Allow a week for a business dinner and three days for lunch. Be certain that the date works for you. This might sound obvious, but if you have to cancel or postpone, you can look disorganized and disrespectful of your clients' time. Select a restaurant that you know, preferably one where you are known. This is no time to try out the latest hot spot. Being confident of the quality of the food and service leaves you free to focus on business. Consider the atmosphere. Does it lend itself to conversation and discussion? If you and your clients can't hear each other over the roar of the diners and dishes, you will have wasted your time and money. When you make your reservation, let the staff know that you will be dining with clients. If your guests suggest a restaurant new to you (perhaps you are hosting clients out-of-town), call ahead and speak with the maоtre d'. Make it clear that you will be having an important business meal and will be picking up the check. Confirm the meal appointment with your clients the day before if you are meeting for breakfast or that day if you are having lunch or dinner. Things do happen and mix-ups occur. Arrive early so you can attend to last minute details. This is the perfect time to give your credit card to the maitre d' and avoid the awkwardness that seems to accompany the arrival of the bill. Take charge of the seating. Your guests should have the prime seats-the ones with the view. As the host, take the least desirable spot-the one facing the wall, the kitchen or the restrooms. Beyond being polite, where you seat your guests is strategic. When you are entertaining one client, sit at a right angle to him rather than across the table. With two clients, put one across from you and the other to your side. If you sit between them, you will look as if you are watching a match at Wimbledon as you try to follow the conversation. Allow your guests to order first. You might suggest certain dishes to be helpful. By recommending specific items, you are indicating a price range. Order as many courses as your guests, no more and no less, to facilitate the flow of the meal. It is awkward if one of you orders an appetizer or dessert and the others do not. As the host, you are the one who decides when to start discussing business. That will depend on a number of factors, such as the time of day and how well you know your clients. At breakfast, time is short, so get down to business quickly. At lunch, wait until you have ordered so you won't be interrupted. Dinner, the more social occasion, is a time for rapport building. Limit the business talk until after the main course is completed. When you know your clients well, you have more of a basis for small talk. However, because you have established a business friendship, you can eliminate some of the chitchat when time is an issue. When you don't know your clients well, spend more time getting acquainted before launching your speech. Sometimes you simply need to use your own judgment about when to get down to business, realizing that if you wait too long, your clients may start to wonder why they were invited. If you begin too early in the meal, your guests might suspect that you are more interested in their money than you are in them. Keep an eye on the time, but don't let your guests see you checking your watch. Breakfast should typically last an hour; lunch an hour and a half. Wrap up your business dinner in two hours. Limit the amount of alcohol you drink at the business meal. Modest consumption of cocktails and wine may be part of the business dinner, but stick to one or two glasses. When guests are drinking liberally and you sense trouble, excuse yourself and discreetly ask the server to hold back on refilling the wine glasses or offering another cocktail. Handle any disasters with grace. With all your attention to detail, things can still go wrong. The food may not be up to your standards, the waiter might be rude or the people at the next table boisterous and out of control. Whatever happens, make sure you are not the one to lose control. Excuse yourself to discuss any problems with the staff. Your guests will feel uncomfortable if you complain in front of or to them. Your conduct during the meal will determine your professional success. If you pay attention to the details and make every effort to see that your clients have a pleasant experience, they will assume that you will handle their business the same way. Before long, you may have clients eating out of your handyman a business meal starts with a soup course. Unless you have already begun by munching on the bread, this is your first opportunity to demonstrate your table manners-to impress or unimpress your dining companions. Choosing the right spoon is step number one. If the table has been preset, your soup spoon will be the large round or oval one to the far right of your place setting. If the table has not been fully set, the server will bring your spoon with the soup. I recently found myself on a hunt for my soup spoon after the waiter had brought the bowl. There was no soup spoon to the right of the place setting and it didn't seem to be anywhere else close by. Just before confessing that I was without a spoon, I spotted a handle sticking out from under the oversized soup bowl. So check the plate first before you give up. With soup spoon in hand, spoon the soup away from you towards the opposite side of the bowl. If a bit of the liquid should fall from the spoon this will ensure that it will drop into the bowl and not on the front of your nice business attire. Sip your soup quietly from the side of the spoon. Slurping is never acceptable. No matter how hot the soup, at no point should you blow on it to cool it off. You may lift a spoonful slightly level with the bowl and hold it for a few seconds while it cools off. Be patient and grateful that your soup is hot. If the soup is not heated to your liking, don't make a fuss during your meal. If you send it back to be reheated, everyone else will feel obliged to wait on you. Then they will end up with the cold soup instead of you. If you want the last drop of soup, you may tip the bowl away from you to spoon this last bit. Just try to avoid looking as if you are not sure where your next meal is coming from. If oyster crackers come with your soup, as they do with chowder, you can put them in your bowl. However, larger crackers are to be eaten with your fingers and never crumbled into the soup. That's only okay when eating in private. Between mouthfuls; rest the spoon in the bowl. When you have finished, place it on the under plate on the right hand side. That is a signal to the server that you have finished. If you'd like to have a piece of bread with your soup, put your spoon on the under plate and use the same hand that held your spoon for the bread. Never go at your meal two-fisted. Every detail of the business meal, including how you eat your soup, contributes to your overall professional image. Etiquette is in essence about proper conduct and presenting yourself favorably. Demonstrating good etiquette is important if one seeks to be successful. An area in which this is essential is the business phone call.millions of business phone calls are made every hour and day. Business people that interact solely over the phone yet never meet still form strong opinions of one another. Practicing good business phone etiquette helps encourage clear lines of communication, build rapport and avoid misunderstandings. Most of us can recollect a phone call that left us feeling frustrated or irritated. How much of this could have been attributed to poor phone etiquette? Here we explore a few simple examples of areas within business phone etiquette that should be employed when making or receiving calls. All successful business interaction needs preparation. The phone call is no exception. It is important to know who you are calling, the most convenient time to do so, the reason for your call and what you can do for them. Be structured, short and sharp. If the caller is not known to the receiver it is important that the purpose of the call and the caller's credentials are established immediately. A simple introduction followed by a sentence or two not only shows good phone etiquette but allows the receiver to set the forthcoming information within a context. Particularise your intention behind the call. Do not assume the receiver understands why you are calling them and what you expect of them. Expand upon information and specify the purpose of the call. Pass on information that the receiver will understand, appreciate and find useful. Waffling and speaking generically will lose attention and generally reflect poorly on the caller. Good business phone etiquette demands professionalism at all times. When speaking to someone you do not know avoid informal speech or personal questions. Once a relationship has been built it is considered polite to enquire about weekends, children or other non-sensitive personal matters. Privacy and security around furtive issues must always be born in mind on the phone. If it is imperative that sensitive discussions take place over the phone, business etiquette requires that you confirm with the receiver whether this is appropriate. Be patient. Demonstrating good business etiquette relies on your staying calm, cool and collected under pressure or when facing a testing situation. Your ability to stay patient earns respect and avoids rash actions or decisions. Although there is much more to business phone etiquette than the above guidelines, you will find they can go a long way in contributing to an improved understanding of how to use the phone effectively in the business world.

3. Перевод

Межкультурные коммуникации - это форма коммуникации, целью которой является обмен информацией между различными культурами и социальными группами. Межкультурное деловое общение очень полезно в создании культурного интеллекта посредством тренировки и обучения кросс-культурной коммуникации, межкультурных переговоров, урегулировании международных конфликтов, обслуживании клиентов деловой и организационной коммуникации. Умение общаться, вести переговоры и эффективно работать с людьми других культур является жизненно важным для международного бизнеса. От международных профессионалов бизнеса требуют навыков в межкультурной коммуникации, потому что они, как правило, обмениваются информацией с людьми со всего мира. Без знания других культур люди склонны делать глупые ошибки при ведении международных дел. Эти ошибки смущают и обижают деловых партнеров и затрудняют процесс коммуникации. Используя такие методы, как активное слушание, включая перефразирование или повторение, что сказал другой человек, люди подтверждают свое понимание, чтобы предотвратить неверное истолкование. Но они также должны учитывать культурные обычаи, такие как выбор времени и тона, чтобы быть действительно эффективными. Эффективные межкультурные стратегии в коммуникации подготавливают людей для жизни и работы в других странах, помогают бизнес подразделениям понять друг друга лучше. Осознание культурных различий может благоприятно повлиять на успех бизнеса. Улучшенное взаимодействие штата, лучшие отношения с клиентами и эффективное управление - это все области, которые получат выгоду благодаря межкультурному взаимопониманию. В результате сотрудники добиваются уважения друг друга и доверяют друг другу. Создание разнообразной производственной культуры позволяет всем сотрудникам чувствовать себя комфортно и максимизировать их производительность. Обучение кадров технике переговоров помогает развить навыки в использовании слов, избегающих конфликты. Эффективные менеджеры помогают создать продуктивную окружающую среду для персонала, поощряя сотрудников, чтобы свести к минимуму их разногласия и сосредоточиться на достижении стратегических целей компании. Объединяя различные группы в социальных ситуациях и позволяя сотрудникам увидеть, что их различия не настолько велики, менеджеры помогают своим командам сотрудничать более сплоченно. Сотрудники, которые принимают их различия и подстраивают свое поведение в соответствии со стилями других культур, как правило, достигают лучших результатов в работе. Принимая аспекты другой культуры в свои собственные, сотрудники обогащают свою культурную самобытность и способность добиться успеха в любой ситуации. Имея дело с межкультурной коммуникацией, вовлекаются все в ее процесс. Сосредотачиваясь на поведении, а не отношениях, сотрудники поддерживают продуктивную рабочую среду. Тщательно выбирая слова, не делая предположения о намерениях кого-либо и изменяя что-то так, чтобы все чувствовали себя комфортно, сотрудники учатся вести переговоры с людьми различного происхождения. Чтобы оценить коммуникационные навыки сотрудников менеджеры используют онлайн опросы, которые позволяют их сотрудникам признавать свои собственные достоинства и недостатки. Проведение семинаров и деловых игр помогает участникам понять, как сотрудничать, чтобы примирять разногласия и успешно работать вместе. Если руководствоваться принципами межкультурных коммуникаций ведя процесс обмена информацией через культурные границы, это позволит сохранить взаимоуважение и минимизирует антагонизм. Для таких целей культура - это общая система символов, верований, отношений, ценностей, ожиданий и норм поведения.

Люди различных культур кодируют и расшифровывают сообщения по-своему, увеличивая тем самым вероятность недоразумений, таким образом, первым последствием признания культурных различий должно быть осознание того, что мысли и действия у всех людей разные. Такие предположения обусловлены незнанием и могут привести к разочарованию обеих сторон. Коммуникация - это то, чего никто не может избежать, и она проявляется во многих формах. Межкультурная коммуникация присутствует каждый раз, когда человек одной культуры посылает сообщение, которое будет обработано другой культурой. Важно понимать, когда это происходит, чтобы Вы могли принять мудрые решения относительно того, как Вы будете общаться. В любой спорной ситуации мы должны сделать выбор, касающийся намерения, действия, средств, последствия, конечной цели, ситуации и устоявшихся культурных контекстов данного случая. В контексте межкультурного принятия решений нам часто надо делать трудный выбор между отстаиванием наших собственных культурных верований или же принятием ценностей другой культуры. Признавая эти различия в ценностях и верованиях облегчат общение с человеком другой культуры. Знание межкультурной коммуникации и способность эффективно ее использовать, могут помочь преодолеть культурные различия, смягчить конфликты и помочь в достижении более гармоничных, продуктивных отношений. Это особенно важно в современном мире, где рынок труда носит глобальный характер.

Очень важно, чтобы люди исследовали культуру и обычаи общения тех, кого им предстоит встретить. Это сводит риск ошибок к минимуму. Также благоразумно создать ясный план так, чтобы все поняли суть и цель взаимодействия. Когда знания языка неравны, разъясняя чье-то значение пятью нижеприведенными способами, облегчит общение:

1. Избегайте использования сленга и идиом, выбирайте слова, которые передадут только самое точное денотативное значение;

2. Слушайте внимательно и, если есть сомнения, попросите подтверждение понимания (особенно важно, если местные акценты и произношение для вас вызывают трудность);

3. Различайте, когда акцентирование и интонация может значительно изменить смысл;

4. Уважайте местные коммуникационные формальности и стили, и наблюдайте за любыми изменениями в языке тела.

5. Перед тем, как вступить в связь с людьми, исследуйте их восприятие вашей культуры, читая литературу о Вашей культуре их глазами. Это позволит Вам подготовиться к их сложившемуся мнению о Вашей культуре, которую Вы будете представлять как гость в их культуре.

Если невозможно выучить чужой язык, будет целесообразно проявить некоторое уважение, изучив несколько слов. При написании, выбор слов представляет отношения между читателем и писателем, поэтому больше мыслей и внимания должно быть вложено в текст, так как это может быть полностью проанализировано получателем. В контексте бизнеса, кросс культурная коммуникация относится к межличностному общению и взаимодействию между различными культурами. Это стало важным вопросом в наш век глобализации и интернационализации. Эффективная коммуникация связана с преодолением культурных различий в национальностях, религии, границах, культуре и поведении. В деловом мире коммуникация обязательна для успешного выполнения ежедневных операций. Понимание культурных различий и преодоление языковых барьеров необходимо, чтобы вести бизнес с людьми различных культур. Часто коммерческие сделки срываются, потому что участвующие стороны решили не тратить время, чтобы узнать о культурах друг друга перед началом сотрудничества.

Обычаи


Поддерживая деловые отношения с представителем другой страны, рассмотрите культурные различия, которые могут быть. Это включает основные обычаи, манеры и жесты. Например, если продавец приходит на встречу со знанием культурного наследия клиента, то их слова, язык тела и действия могут быть очень схожи. Это в свою очередь может привести к тому, что он очень понравится заказчику, в конечном счете увеличив возможность продавца заключить сделку.

Языковые барьеры

В некоторых странах, таких, как Соединенные Штаты и Германия, людям свойственно говорить громко и быть более напористыми и агрессивными, обмениваясь идеями или подсказывая путь. В странах, как Япония люди, как правило, говорят мягко и более пассивно. При взаимодействии с людьми из разных культур, разговор нейтральным тоном и приложение сознательного усилия, чтобы быть внимательными к другим, даже если это способ, к которому Вы не приучены, могут содействовать эффективному деловому общению.

Целевая аудитория

Запуская маркетинговую кампанию или рекламируя что-либо людям другой культуры, всегда исследуйте целевой рынок до начала кампании. Уровни консерватизма, гендерные взгляды и идеологии могут значительно отличаться в культурах. Презентация кампании, которая не соответствует определенным культурным нормам, может оскорбить целевую аудиторию и значительно помешать ей. Зная культурные нормы, можно также сузить целевую аудиторию. Например, в Японии и Австрии, мужчины обычно контролируют принятие решений, но женщины делают большинство из решений о покупке в Швеции.

Технологии


Благодаря глобализации, растет число людей различных культур и стран, ведущих бизнес друг с другом. Технологии позволяют легко общаться с людьми во всем мире в любой момент, но есть несколько правил, которые необходимо помнить прежде, чем делать так. Осуществляя международный телефонный или видео конференц-вызов, учитывайте различия часовых поясов и убедитесь, что назначили подходящее для всех участвующих сторон время. Важно помнить, что культурные различия могут также повлиять на доступность. Например, просто потому что Вы намечаете телефонную конференцию на середину рабочего дня, не означает, что время будет благоприятно для людей, с которыми Вы ведете дело. У многих испанских культур более длительные обеденные перерывы, чем у американцев, что означает, что может быть двух - трехчасовой период времени в течение дня, в который Вы хотели бы встретиться с человеком, он недоступен. Выяснение доступности до совершения звонка является лучшим способом избежать путаницы. Как только Вы сможете подключиться, говорите ясно и медленно.

Политика


Политические влияния, как прошлого, так и настоящего, могут потенциально повлиять на то, как человек или компания ведет бизнес. Некоторые культуры имеют очень сильное чувство национализма и правительственной гордости, и поэтому чувствуют себя более комфортно и готовы работать с компаниями с правительственной поддержкой. Ведение дела с людьми других культур может также повлиять на переговоры, если есть продолжающиеся политические споры между странами участвующих сторон. Чтобы избежать конфликта, лучше избегать обсуждения любых политических вопросов, которые непосредственно не принадлежат бизнесу. Слушание и разговор должны работать в тандеме для эффективной межкультурной коммуникации. Хорошая речь характеризуется не отсутствием акцента, использованием грамматики и словаря или наличием дара болтливости. Скорее межкультурная коммуникация совершенствуется через положительную речь, такую как поддержка, подтверждение, фразировке вопросов ясно и выражению мнений деликатно. Много информации может быть прочитано в одежде людей, языке тела, взаимодействии и поведении. Знайте о различиях со своей собственной культурой и попытайтесь понять истоки поведения. Задавая вопросы расширяются Ваши межкультурные знания. Каждый человек был создан по-разному, и мы должны это признать и понять, что иногда межкультурные различия раздражают и разочаровывают. В этих ситуациях терпение - определенно добродетельно. Через терпение завоевано уважение. Гибкость, адаптируемость и открытость - являются дорогой к успешной межкультурной коммуникации. Понимание, принятие и устранение межкультурных различий рушат культурные барьеры, приводя к взаимному доверию и креативному мышлению. Проблемы в деловом общении, возникающие между культурами часто появляются, когда участники одной культуры неспособны понять различия в коммуникационных методах, традициях, и обработки мыслей. На самом фундаментальном уровне могут возникнуть проблемы, когда один или более вовлеченных людей цепляется за этноцентристское мнение о том, как вести бизнес. Этноцентризм - это убеждение, что собственная культурная группа, так или иначе, изначально превосходит другие.

Культура напрямую влияет на коммуникационный процесс в международном бизнесе через семь переменных:

1. язык

2. экологические и технологические аспекты

3. общественная организация

4. контекст и сохранение лица

5. концепция власти

6. невербальное коммуникационное поведение

7. концепция времени

Большинство барьеров возникает при общении между культурами из-за того, что коммуникатор пренебрегает этими факторами. Оценивая заранее роль этих переменных в деловом общении, поможет улучшить способность передавать эффективно сообщения аудитории другой культуры. Сами по себе эти семь факторов не обеспечивают доскональное знание другой культуры. Кроме того, эти семь аспектов культуры не являются единственной причиной межкультурных трудностей общения. Однако знание этих факторов, являетсяфундаментом, на котором можно построить основу для понимания деловых людей других культур. В целом, эти семь факторов представляют собой подход к постановке правильных вопросов, необходимых, чтобы увидеть самые значительные культурные различия и сходства. Ответы на эти вопросы варьируются согласно опыту собеседников. Среди чаще всего встречаемых барьеров на пути к бесконфликтной межкультурной коммуникации встречается использование различных языков. Невозможно недооценить важность лингвистических различий и их роль в международной бизнескоммуникации. Трудности с языком в основном делятся на три категории: грубые проблемы перевода, проблемыв передаче тонких различий между языками и культурные различия говорящихна том же языке. Грубые ошибки перевода реже вызывают конфликт между сторонами, чем другие языковые трудности по двум причинам. Во-первых, их легче всего обнаружить. Большинство грубых ошибок перевода или нелепы, или не имеют никакого смысла вообще. Только те ошибки, которые продолжают быть логичными и в оригинальном значении и в неправильно переведенной версии, представляют собой серьезную оплошность. Несмотря на то, что грубые ошибки легко обнаружить, на них напрасно тратят время и терпение участвующие стороны. Кроме того, для некоторых, такие ошибки подразумевают неуважение к стороне, на язык которой переведено сообщение. Тончайшие детали, которые часто крайне важны для деловых переговоров, также опускаются, когда стороны по-разному понимают язык. В английском языке, например, различия между словами "неправильно истолковать" и "неправильно понимать", может оказаться существенными при переводе. Если собеседник обидчивый и ему сказать, что он или она "неправильно понимает", это может означать, что он недалекий. Сказать, что тот же самый переговорщик "неправильно истолковывает" понятие, позволит ему не упасть в грязь лицом, так как все высказывания спорные. Он или она правильно поняли, однако, неточно интерпретировали. В такой ситуации термин применяется более объективно к вопросу под рукой, чем определенному переговорщику. Однако, такие тонкие различия могут быть упущены человеком с недостаточным знанием языка. Когда собеседник с хорошим знанием языка, предполагает, что говорящий знает все тонкости, конфликт вероятен. Что касается акцента и диалектов, они также создают барьеры в международном бизнес общении. Мнение, что особый акцент предполагает лояльность или дружеские отношения со страной или областью, широко распространено во многих языках. Использование Парижского французского языка в Квебеке, мексиканского испанского в Испании или субконтинентального индийского английского языка в Соединенных Штатах очень заметно и может свидетельствовать о незнании, даже если пользователь бегло разговаривает. Что еще более важно региональные связи или напряженные отношения в таких странах, как Италия, Франция или Германия могут предполагаться диалектом, который использует носитель языка. Наконец, национальные предрассудки и социальные различия часто усиливаются благодаря социолингвистике - социальной модели языка. Например, из-за региональных предрассудков и расизма определенные акценты в Соединенных Штатах, используемые в городских районах (например, акцент Бронкса), сельских районах (например, Аппалачский акцент), или расовые (например, черные англичане) могут усиливать негативные стереотипы (как правило, ошибочно) относительно деловых способностей, уровня образования или сообразительности среди определенных американских слоев. Аналогичным образом некоторые культуры используют социолингвистику, чтобы дифференцировать один экономический класс от другого. Так, в Англии, различные акценты относят к аристократии, среднему и низшему классу. Эти различия зачастую неизвестны иностранцами. Способы, которыми люди используют доступные им ресурсы, часто радикально отличаются в культурах. Культурно-укоренившиеся убеждения относительно естественной и технологической окружающей среды могут создать коммуникационные барьеры. Большинство людей привыкли таким образом смотреть на окружающую среду и использование технологий, который характерен их собственной культуре. Это, в свою очередь, может мешать принимать или даже понимать те взгляды, которых придерживаются другие культуры.

Пять основных областей отношений к физическим характеристикам и природным ресурсам страны, вероятно, приведут к культурным и экологическим предпосылкам. Это:

1. климат

2. топография

3. численность населения

4. плотность населения

5. относительная доступность природных ресурсов

Эти пять экологических различий появляются, когда люди общаются на широкий спектр бизнес тематик. Понятия транспортировки и логистики, урегулирования и территориальной организации зависят от топографии и климата. Например, транспортировка и логистика в одной культуре могут казаться абсолютно абсурдными для другой. Менеджер канадской компании, занимающейся бизнесом в Южной Америке, никогда бы не грузил товары из Чили в соседнюю Аргентину окружным маршрутом Панамского канала. Поскольку Канада относительно плоская и имеет превосходную сеть железных дорог и шоссе, канадский менеджер предположил бы, что самый легкий способ транспортировать товары на любое короткое расстояние будет сухопутный. Это предпочтение было бы подкреплено фактом, что много канадских водных путей замерзает из-за сурового климата. В результате канадец мог бы предположить или указать на предпочтение сухопутного транспорта в любом соответствующем деловом общении. Единственное, что канадец мог бы не понять в такой ситуации, - то, что прочная физическая среда Андской местности и связанное с этим отсутствие андских железных дорог и автострад сделали бы такой выбор необоснованно дорогим или даже невозможным. В отличие от этого, порты теплой воды и относительно легкий доступ в Панамский канал или другие водные пути укрепили бы выбор водных маршрутов даже для таких относительно коротких сухопутных расстояний. Численность населения и доступность природных ресурсов влияют на мнение о внешнем и внутреннем рынках каждой нации. Соединенные Штаты и Китай, например, у обоих есть гигантские внутренние рынки и они богаты природными ресурсами. Обе страны экспортируют на выбор и имеют тенденцию интернализировать свои мнения о зарубежных рынках. Внешние рынки в таких странах могут быть культурно укреплены как вторичные, как следствие, с культурным акцентом на внутренние рынки. Швейцария, напротив, с небольшим населением и с небогатыми природными ресурсами, культурно ориентирована к экспорту с иностранными рынками, рассматриваемыми как их первичные рынки и внутренний швейцарский рынок как сравнительно незначительный вторичный рынок. Плотность населения и использование пространства влияют на развитие различного культурного восприятия того, как они используются. Таким образом, как люди используют пространство офисов, жилья и зданий в каждой стране свое. Например, во многих странах размер, расположение и обстановка офиса несут в себе сообщение. Однако же, это сообщение понимается везде по-разному. Такие различия могут быть едва заметными или же очевидными. Например, различия между американским и французским офисом руководителя высшего звена могут быть трудно уловимыми. И во Франции и в Соединенных Штатах, размере офиса, роскошь обстановки и местоположение в здании (угловой офис или верхний этаж здания) отражают статус владельца офиса. Во Франции, однако, отдельная эстетика офисной обстановки несет в себе важное сообщение о владельце офиса, в то время как в американском офисе настенные декорации и мебель часто выбираются дизайнером при незначительном участии хозяина офиса. Наиболее явный контраст между американским или французским офисом исполнительного органа и "открытой системой" офисов Японии. В открытой системе офисов у японских начальников нет отдельных офисов вообще. Вместо этого их столы - просто одни из многочисленных других столов, размещенных в узорном расположении на большой открытой площадке. Никакое разделение не используется между столами вообще, и никакие отдельные офисы не существуют. Тем не менее, каждый человек в этой неофициальной, открытой системе стратегически размещен по своему рангу и статусу, так же, как в американской или французской раздельной офисной системе. Таким образом, столы начальников отделов обычно помещаются в место, самое отдаленное от двери, где начальники отделов могут легко видеть весь свой отдел. Кроме того, дальнейший статус может быть обозначен размещением около окна. Сообщение, переданное таким размещением на большой открытой площадке, может быть не распознано французским или американским посетителем, не знающим этого. А если серьезно, отказ деловых людей изменить их коммуникацию, чтобы приспособить экологические различия часто происходит из-за этноцентрической непреклонности к культурно изученным представлениям о технологии. Как правило, культуры могут быть разделены на три подхода к технологии: (1) контроль; (2) подчинение, и (3) гармонизация. В культурах контроля, таких как из Северной Европы и Северной Америки, технология обычно рассматривается как изначально положительное средство для управления окружающей средой. Если дорога приводит к горе в культуре контроля, тоннель прокладывается через гору. Если тоннель разрушается, культурное мнение - технология не соответствовала и должна быть улучшена. В культурах подчинения, таких, как из центральной Африки и юго-западной Азии, существующая окружающая среда рассматривается позитивно, а технология воспринимается с некоторым скептицизмом. Если дорога приближается к горе, она может просто в ней закончиться. Если тоннель используется и разрушается, культурное мнение - то, что самая идея была ошибочной, а не то, что технология была несоответствующей. В культурах гармонизации, распространенных во многих индейских культурах и некоторых восточноазиатских странах, есть баланс между использованием технологии и существующей окружающей средой. В этих культурах ни технология, ни окружающая среда не хороши врожденно, и члены таких культур рассматривают себя как часть окружающей среды, в которой они живут, не будучи ни подчиненными ей, ни ее хозяином. Одним их основных камней преткновения в общении среди тех, кто из культур контроля является - вера, что другие культуры хотят больше походить на них. Культуры контроля имеют тенденцию описывать себя как "промышленно развитые страны". Их участники часто полагают, что способ, которым люди в менее промышленно развитых стран используют свои ресурсы является следствием изначально низших технологий. Возможно, в некоторых случаях это положение может быть оправдано. Часто, тем не менее, причина, по которой люди используют ресурсы, доступные им таким образом, состоит в том, что она приносит выгоду в бизнесе, используя их таким способом в пределах контекста их собственных культурных взглядов. Общественная организация, поскольку это касается рабочего места, часто культурно определяется. Надо постараться не предполагать, что мнение, которого придерживаются в собственной культуре, универсально для таких аспектов, как общественная организация культуры, кумовство и родственные связи, образовательные ценности, классовая структура и социальная мобильность, рабочий статус и экономическая стратификация, религиозные связи, политическая принадлежность, гендерные различия, расизм и другие предрассудки, отношения к работе, и учреждения для развлечений и работы. Все эти направления имеют долгосрочные последствия для бизнес отношений. Выбор сотрудников на основе резюме, например, считают основным в Соединенных Штатах, Канаде и большой части Северной Европы - все страны со сравнительно слабым понятием семейных отношений и связей родства. В этих культурах семейственность рассматривается субъективно и, вероятно, для защиты менее компетентных рабочих посредством семейного вмешательства. Напротив, это было бы совершенно неуместно предложить представителям арабских стран, Африканской Республики, Латинской Америки или южно-европейских культур нанять незнакомца вместо родственника. Для людей в этих культурах семейственность является личным обязательством и обеспечивает соответствующий уровень доверия и ответственности. Факт, что незнакомец лучше квалифицирован, исходя изего резюме и краткого интервью, не повлиял бы на это убеждение, как, например, мог бы, в Соединенных Штатах или Швеции. Такое предположение, в зависимости от конкретной ситуации, можно было бы сделать. Чтобы предположить такой план действий, однако, нужно было бы сообщить это таким способом, на который сотрудники, вероятнее всего, отреагируют, нарушив порядок. Аналогичным образом природа похвалы и мотивации сотрудника может быть определена. Например, продвижение единственного члена традиционной японской рабочей группы может заставить производительность и моральное состояние как всей группы, так и продвинутого сотрудника падать. Подобное продвижение в Соединенных Штатах, в отличие от этого, могло бы быть рассмотрено в качестве награды для продвинутого сотрудника и могло бы вдохновить оставшихся членов группы старательнее работать, чтобы также достигнуть цели. Таким образом производить такое продвижение открыто, может оказаться плохой политикой в Японии, но хорошей для Соединенных Штатов. Наконец, часто бывает трудно избавить деловое общение от поверхностной предвзятости, когда общественная организация заметно различается. Например, людям из Соединенных Штатов, возможно, будет трудно сохранять нейтралитет на структурах класса предотвращающих продвижение по службе. Например, социально обусловленная подчиненная роль женщин в большой части исламского мира, или низших каст в Индии, может оказаться особенно тревожной для тех из Соединенных Штатов. Тем не менее, если американский бизнесмен не может устранить сопутствующее осуждение из его или ее делового общения, то он или она не сможет эффективно работать в этом обществе. Человек может лично полагать, что социальная система страны неэффективная или неправильная. Однако если человек ведет ежедневно бизнес, ему необходимо работать в рамках ограничений этой культуры, чтобы преуспеть. Можно выбрать не делать бизнес людьми такой культуры, но нельзя навязать свои ценности и ожидать чего-то хорошего. Общение зависит от контекста, в котором установлена коммуникация. Чем больше информации отправитель и получатель разделяют вместе, тем выше контекст коммуникации и меньше необходимость общения посредством слов или жестов. Коммуникация, тогда, может быть как с высоким, так и с низким уровнемконтекста. В коммуникации с высоким уровнем контекста, большая часть того, что люди принимают решение не сказать, важна для понимания переданного сообщения. Даже при том, что человек ничего мог не сказать, другие по-прежнему должны понимать невысказанное сообщение. Эдвард Т. Хол был первым человеком, который введет термин "контекста". Хол наблюдал: "Вопрос уровня контекста требует решения относительно того, каким количеством информации человек ожидает обладать на данную тему. Похоже, что все культуры устраивают своих участников и отношений по шкале контекста, и одна из основных коммуникационных стратегий, будь то обращение к одному человеку или всей группе, состоит в том, чтобы установить правильный уровень контекста коммуникации… правила варьируется от культуры до культуры, таким образом, определение уровня контекста, который "они" не понимают, может быть оскорблением, даже притом, что Ваше предположение правильно. Культуры высокого уровня контекста включают такие страны, как Япония, Китай, Мексика, Греция, арабские страны, Бразилия и Корея. Культуры среднего уровня контекста включают Англию, Финляндию, Италию и Францию. Культуры низкого уровня контекста включают Соединенные Штаты, Данию, Швецию, Норвегию, Германию и немецкоязычную часть Швейцарии. Этот комплекс примеров весьма ограничен и также не учитывает культурные и региональные различия внутри страны. Таким образом, Западные Апачи юго-западных Соединенных Штатов могут быть культурой самого высокого уровня контекста, хотя их числа недостаточно, чтобы повлиять на общий низкий уровень коммуникацию контекста среди большинства людей в Соединенных Штатах. Точно так же региональные различия в Германии очевидны на контрасте между относительно высоким уровнем контекста баварцев и низким у северных немцев, хотя все - немцы, и все имеют более низкий уровень контекста, чем средний британец или японец. Наконец, никакие две культуры не разделяют тот же самый уровень контекста. Таким образом, в любом межкультурном обмене, одна сторона будет с высоким уровнем контекста, а другая с низким. В культурах высокого контекста большая часть того, что фактически не сказано, должна быть понято через то, что, может казаться косвенным. Людям их культур более низкого контекста те, кто культуры высокого уровня контекста могут казаться излишне неопределенными. И наоборот, те, кто из культур высокого уровня контекста могут смотреть на коллег низкого уровня контекста как безличных и смутно буквальных. Как коммуникатор в международном бизнесе, важно оценить уровень контекста, присущи коммуникации культуры, с которой ведется дело, чтобы понять ясно, что было передано. Так как уровень контекста представляет собой межкультурное изменение в концепции против неявной связи, любая область делового общения, в котором такие различия играют роль, подвержена значительному влиянию. Таким образом, в культурах высокого уровня контекста, акцент на слова, выбранные в целом и на написанные в особенности, является относительно слабым, так как слова

передают только один аспект контекста коммуникации. Как результат, как что-то сказано намного важнее, чем что. В отличие от этого, в культурах низкого уровня контекста, фактические слова имеют большее значение, чем подразумеваемый смысл. Что на самом деле сказано, а особенно написано - значит больше, чем контекст, в котором это было сказано. Различия в контексте акцента на фактическое слово имеют далеко идущие последствия для бизнеса. В культурах низкого уровня контекста акцент на явную коммуникацию приводит к твердой приверженности закону, в то время как в культурах высокого уровня контекста закон рассматривается как гибкий, чтобы подстроить его под различные ситуации. В культурах низкого уровня контекста письменные соглашения рассматриваются в качестве обязательных, в то время как личные обещания рассматриваются как необязательные. В противоположность в культурах высокого уровня контекста, письменные соглашения носят относительный характер, в то время как личные обещания являются обязательными. Культуры высокого уровня контекста, в результате обнаружили, что их межличностным поведением управляет индивидуальная интерпретация (то есть, контекст отношений), в то время как культуры низкого уровня контекста обнаружили, что их отношения диктуют внешние правила. Наконец, существует взаимосвязь между сохранением лица и контекстом. Культуры с высоким уровнем контекста более озабочены сохранением лица, то есть, сохранением престижа и достоинства. Культуры низкого уровня контекста менее беспокоятся о сохранении лица, так как слова, скорее, воспринимаются без подразумеваемого значения. В результате культуры высокого уровня контекста предпочитают подход к деловому общению, основанный на уклончивости и вежливости; культуры низкого уровня контекста используют стратегии конфронтации и прямой подход к деловому общению. Культуры высокого уровня контекста имеют тенденцию интерпретировать прямоту в коммуникации как невежество и грубость; культуры низкого уровня

контекста имеют тенденцию рассматривать прямоту как честность и безобидность. Как следствие, культуры высокого уровня контекста рассматривают косвенность как честность и показ соображения, в то время как культуры низкого уровня контекста рассматривают косвенность как ложь и оскорбление. Наконец, культуры высокого уровня контекста имеют тенденцию к минимальному словесному самораскрытию, предпочитая неопределенность заявлению очевидного. Культуры низкого уровня контекста, наоборот, нетерпимы к неопределенности и требуют большое количество явного словесного самораскрытия. Различные культуры часто рассматривают распределение власти в их обществе по-разному. Герт Хофстеде, голландский исследователь международного бизнеса, назвал это таспект культурного различия "дистанция власти", определяющим его как "степень, в которой общество принимает тот факт, что власть в учреждениях и организациях распределена неравномерно". Мнение власти в данном обществе значительно влияет на коммуникацию в деловой среде, поскольку это формирует представление того, как сообщение будет получено на основе статуса или ранга отправителя. При этом в относительно децентрализованной деловой среде, которая существует даже во многих американских компаниях с высоким уровнем централизации, люди обычно обращают внимание на человека, основываясь на то, насколько убедительно звучит его аргумент, независимо от ранга или статуса в организации или обществе в целом. В отличие от этого, в высоко централизованной культуре, как высокопоставленный человек общается, к этому относятся очень серьезно, даже если кто-то не согласен. Это, в свою очередь, имеет далеко идущие последствия для принятой формы управленческой коммуникации, основанной на относительной концепции власти данной культуры. В работе с культурами таких стран как Израиль и Швеция, которые имеют относительно децентрализованную концепцию власти или маленькую "дистанцию власти", можно было изначально ожидать признания участвующей коммуникационной управленческой модели. С другой стороны, в работе с культурами, таких стран как Франция и Бельгия, можно было бы ожидать относительно меньшее использования участвующих управленческих моделей и больше беспокоится о том, кто имеет соответствующие полномочия. Одним из наиболее ярких переменных измерений межкультурной коммуникации является невербальное поведение. Знание культуры, переданное через то, что говорит человек, представляет только часть того, что он сообщил. Большая часть невербальной коммуникации может быть разделена на шесть областей: одежда; кинесика или язык тела; окулесика или зрительный контакт; хептика или поведение прикосновений; проксемика или использование возможностей тела; и паралингвистика. Любая из этих областей сообщает невербально важную информацию в любой культуре. Одним из наиболее очевидных различий является интерпретация одежды. Сообщение, которое несут в себе начищенные ботинки, например, может быть легко потеряно в культуре, в которой сандалии - стандартная обувь. Точно так же решение женщины одеть ее лучший костюм, было бы потеряно в культуре, в которой ни одна женщина не носят деловые костюмы. Даже когда культуры имеют сходные формы одежды, сообщение, передаваемое выбором одежды, является не всегда одинаковым. Например, выбор консервативного галстука для формальных переговоров хорошо разделяли бы несколько культур, но какой именно должен быть галстук (даже когда все стороны принадлежат культурам, в которых мужчины обычно носят галстуки) определяется по стандартам, которые преобладают в определенной культуре. Таким образом, что является консервативным галстуком в одной культуре, может казаться неконсервативным или роскошным в другой, неся в себе совершенно другое сообщение. Не менее важно то, что люди часто приходят на межкультурную встречу с предрассудками относительно того, что они считают надлежащей одеждой. Поэтому европеец или американец могут осуждать жителей Саудовской Аравии или иранцев в традиционной одежде как нецивилизованных. С другой стороны житель Саудовской Аравии или иранец могут считать вопиюще безнравственным голое лицо, руки и ноги европейской или американской женщины в деловом костюме. Невербальные поведенческие различия в кинесике могут быть менее очевидными, чем различия одежды. Как люди идут, жестикулируют, кланяются, стоят или сидят, все в значительной части, культурно детерминировано. Во многих случаях знак кинесики, который хорошо понимают в одной культуре, полностью неизвестен для другой культуры. В Индонезии и в большей части арабского мира, например, это оскорбительно показать подошвы другому. С таким поведением часто сталкиваются в Соединенных Штатах, где сидеть нога за ногу привычное дело, не обращая внимания на то, куда указывает подошва. В Японии есть своя система поклона, которая не имеет аналога в Соединенных Штатах. Поэтому вся эта система невербальной коммуникации обычно теряется среди большинства американских деловых людей. В кинесике некоторое поведение может нести совершенно разные значения в разных культурах. В таких случаях все стороны узнают жест, но интерпретируют его по-разному. Во время визита Джорджа Буша в Австралию, в то время как он был президентом, он показал два пальца в виде знака V. В обеих странах символ широко известен, но в Соединенных Штатах "V" знак - признак доброжелательности, победы и солидарности, в то время как в Австралии он несет непристойное, сексуальное значение. Хептика или поведение прикосновений также отражает культурные ценности. В не относящемся к хептическому обществе, таком как Япония, прикосновение к другому человеку в бизнесе, даже с рукопожатием, традиционно считается иностранным. В то время как японцы, знакомые с американским рукопожатием, могут приспособиться к его использованию, могут полагать, что такой культурный компромисс не распространится как тактильный ответ похлопыванием по спине. Соединенные Штаты, сами по себе, являются не относящемся к хептическому обществом, особенно между мужчинами. Во многих культурах, которые ведут себя более хептически, мужчины часто идут с перекрещенными руками или, держась руки, что американским мужчинам кажется женоподобным или чрезмерно близким. Окулесика или использование зрительного контакта также значительно варьируется в зависимости от культуры. В некоторых культурах, например, считается непочтительным долго смотреть в глаза тем, кто старше или более высокого статуса. Во многих культурах считают неприличным для женщин смотреть мужчинам прямо в глаза. В Соединенных Штатах, наоборот, исследования показали, что зрительный контакт не имеет отношение к возрасту или статусу человека, скорее связан с доверием или чувством принадлежности человека. В то время как довольно устойчивый зрительный контакт в Соединенных Штатах может указать на интерес и внимательность слушателя, напористый зрительный контакт может смутить. Наконец, проксемика или то, как далеко друг от друга люди стоят, говоря, или как далеко они сидят на встречах, несет важную информацию людям, которые разделяют ту же культуру. Здесь, также как с другим невербальным поведением, такая информация, вероятно, будет искажена между культурами. Личное пространство культурно определено. В Соединенных Штатах, например, люди, как правило, чувствуют себя наиболее комфортно в деловой среде, говоря приблизительно на расстоянии вытянутой руки друг от друга. Во многих латиноамериканских, южно-европейских, центрально-африканских и ближневосточных культурах, однако, удобное диалоговое расстояние будет намного ближе. Действительно, во многих частях мира, дружественные или серьезные разговоры проводятся достаточно близко, чтобы чувствовать дыхание говорящего. Американский или североевропейский коммуникатор, не знающий об этом, может столкнуться с очень неудобной ситуацией, идя на слушателя и загнав его в угол, продолжать приближаться к отступающему слушателю. Результат в деловой ситуации мог иметь катастрофические последствия. Спикер с более близкой концепцией личного пространства, вероятно, чувствовал бы себя подозрительным и даже отвергнутым слушателем с концепцией более широкого пространства. С другой стороны человек с большей концепцией личного пространства мог чувствовать говорящего слишком настойчивым, агрессивным, или грубым. Коммуникация международного бизнеса также зависит от межкультурных различий во временной концепции или понимании времени. Большинство американских и североевропейских деловых людей относятся ко времени как негибкой вещи, которая должна быть расписана, использована или потрачена впустую. Это, однако, не универсальное представление. То, как каждый использует время, следовательно, может глубоко повлиять на то, как ведется бизнес в разных частях мира. Поскольку не стоит всех обобщать, но большинство культур делятся на два типа временной концепции. Первый тип придерживается заданного графика, в котором расписание имеет приоритет над личным взаимодействием или окончанием дела под рукой. Эдвард Хол ввел термин "монохронический", чтобы описать эту систему временной организации. В отличие от этого, те, кто следует за тем, что Хол назвал "полихронической" временной организацией, оценивают личную причастность и завершение существующих дел выше требований заданных графиков. Правда не все общества могут быть легко разделены на монохронические и полихронические системы. Часто определенные подмножества в пределах общества будут функционировать монохронически, в то время как другие в пределах той же самой культуры будут функционировать полихронически. Например, большинство крупнейших корпораций в Соединенных Штатах следует строгой монохронической системой. Много врачей в Соединенных Штатах, однако, следуют полихронической системе. В целом можно было бы сделать вывод, что американская культура имеет монохроническую концепцию времени. Поскольку люди обычно выполняют задачи за счет планирования в полихронических обществах, люди высокой власти могут стать легко перегруженными многократными задачами. Чтобы предотвратить перегрузки людей в положениях высокой власти в полихронических обществах часто используют подчиненных, чтобы работать на них. Как только работник просмотрит их, вышестоящий человек будет видеть задачу независимо от ее относительной важности. Поскольку полихроническая система поощряет взаимодействие один на один, такая культурная организация обычно допускает процветание высоко персонализированных отношений между человеком во власти и подопечным. Поток информации открыт в обоих направлениях постоянно. Действительно, для того, чтобы система работала гладко, на пользу и начальнику и подчиненному, необходимо быть полностью осведомленным обо всех аспектах профессиональной и личной жизни друг друга. Это личное участие затрудняет отказ человека в полномочиях, как только задача представлена. Поэтому в подобной ситуации пробиться способны лишь те, кто работает на человека во власти, и умеют посодействовать его участию в решении задачи. Никакие барьеры не существуют между лидером и подчиненным; начальник будет всегда приветствовать подчиненного. Это разрабатывает систему, в которой влияние и близкий круг контактов среди тех, которые работает на тех, кто выше, создают неофициальную и неформальную деловую иерархию. В монохронической системе личным отношениям редко позволяют процветать на работе именно, потому, что личной причастности нельзя позволить повлиять на заданные графики, чтобы система функционировала гладко. Личные отношения определяются условиями работы. Многочисленные задачи решаются по одному в досрочном порядке. Люди при власти, в отличие от тех в полихронических обществах, доступны в зависимости от расписания встреч. В такой системе время устанавливает задачи для авторитетной личности, а не подчиненные или личные отношения среди них. Коммуникационная стратегия полихронической системы концепции времени значительно отличается от стратегии монохронической. Например, в полихронической системе следует иметь в виду, что люди различают своих и тех, кто вне существующих личных отношений. Поэтому необходимо попытаться установить внутреннюю связь, чтобы повысить эффективность переданного сообщения. В монохроническом обществе наоборот нужно только назначить встречу с соответствующими людьми. Не следует ожидать, что люди в монохронической системе отдадут предпочтение тем, кого они знают вместо незнакомцев. Посторонних рассматривают таким же образом, как и близких партнеров. Влияние концепции времени на коммуникацию весьма обширно. Это осложняется еще тем фактом, что никакая культура не является исключительно полихронической или монохронической. Члены любой культуры имеют склонность к одному направлению или другому, хотя культуры в целом могут организовать свои мысли и время, так или иначе. Главным вопрос здесь остается уметь видеть все коммуникационные различия, которые указали бы, что одна культура более монохроническая или полихроническая и соответственно адаптировать свои коммуникационные стратегии.

Поскольку бизнес все больше и больше обращается к интегрированному мировому рынку, чтобы удовлетворить свои потребности, трудности общения на глобальном уровне стали все более и более широко распространенными. Отсутствие понимания из-за этноцентризма или незнания культурных правил, которые, как ошибочно полагают, универсальны, может легко перейти внепродуктивный конфликт между людьми разной культурной ориентации. Однако, в условиях развивающейся конкурентоспособной мировой экономики это тяжелее для успешного делового предприятия (чем оно, возможно, было в прошлом) вести дело исключительно в пределах безопасных границ внутренней деловой среды. Следовательно, потребность в работе с межкультурными различиями и межкультурными коммуникационными барьерами также выросла. Межкультурные аспекты, изложенные в этом кратком обзоре, служат основой для того, чтобы задать правильные вопросы, готовясь к деловому общению с людьми других культур. Общаясь правильным образом, в котором каждый из этих факторов, вероятно, влияет на связь с людьми определенной культуры, многие коммуникационные барьеры между людьми различных культур можно предусмотреть и избежать.

Глоссарий

Misgauge - неправильно оценить

Touchy - обидчивый

Harsh - суровый

Overt - очевидный

Plush - роскошный

Affiliation - принадлежность

Kinship-родство

Bias - предвзятость

Condemnation-осуждение

Vague-неясный

As a corollary - как следствие

Flashy-показной

Business afire - деловой костюм

Sole - подошва

Pushy-напористый

Cross cultural communication is a form of communication that aims to share information across different cultures and social groups. Cross Cultural Business Communication is very helpful in building cultural intelligence through coaching and training in cross-cultural communication, cross-cultural negotiation, multicultural conflict resolution, customer service, business and organizational communication. The ability to communicate, negotiate and effectively work with people from other cultures is vital to international business. Global business professionals require skills in cross-cultural communication, because they typically exchange information with people from all over the world. Without knowledge of other cultures, people tend to make embarrassing mistakes when conducting international business. These errors confuse and offend business partners and make effective communication difficult. Using techniques such as active listening, including paraphrasing or repeating what the other person has said, people confirm their understanding to prevent misinterpretation. But they also need to consider cultural conventions, such as timing and tone, to be truly effective. Effective intercultural communication strategies prepare people to live or work in other countries, help business departments understand each other better. Awareness of cultural differences can favorably impact the success of a business. Improved staff interaction, better customer relations and effective client management are all areas that will reap benefits through cross cultural understanding. Employees gain respect for one another and trust one another as a result. By recognizing that different groups of people solve common problems in different ways, people come to value their differences and appreciate the different approaches. Becoming competent involves learning how to communicate and interact with people from other cultures in one-to-one situations, small groups and large teams. Creating a diverse work culture enables all employees to feel safe and maximize their productivity. Providing training in negotiation techniques helps people develop skills in using conflict-reducing words. By discouraging behavior that makes other people feel excluded or unwanted, companies help prevent stereotyping and demeaning jokes or remarks. Effective leaders establish rules for appropriate behavior and take disciplinary action when violations occur. The first step involves accepting differences. For example, the types of food people consume create an expression of cultural identity. Encourage people to share their favorite foods. Similarly, the customs associated with gift exchanges, such as symbolism, obligations and reciprocity, differ between cultures. Research and observe local customs. Additionally, cultures differ on whether they value the individual or the group, how they treat women and how they perceive time. They also differ on how they respond to authority, how they treat personal space, how they show emotion and how they negotiate. Effective managers help build a productive team environment by encouraging employees to minimize their differences and focus on achieving the company's strategic goals. By bringing diverse groups together in social situations and allowing employees to see that differences are not threatening, managers help their teams work together more cohesively back on the job. Employees who accept their differences and adapt their behavior to suit the styles of another culture tend to get better results. By adopting aspects of another culture into their own, employees enrich their cultural identity and ability to succeed in any situation. Dealing with intercultural communication involves including everyone in the process. By focusing on observable behavior and not attitudes, employees maintain a productive work environment. By choosing words carefully, not making assumptions about intentions, and making adjustments so that everyone feels accepted, employees learn to negotiate effectively with people from different backgrounds. By encouraging employees to assess their communications skills, using online managers allow their employees to recognize their own strengths and weaknesses. Conducting workshops and simulation gameshelps participants experience what it's like to function by different rules and learn to reconcile differences in order to work together successfully. Inter-cultural communication principles guide the process of exchanging meaningful and unambiguous information across cultural boundaries, in a way that preserves mutual respect and minimizes antagonism. For these purposes, culture is a shared system of symbols, beliefs, attitudes, values, expectations, and norms of behavior. People from different cultures encode and decode messages differently, increasing the chances of misunderstanding, so the safety-first consequence of recognizing cultural differences should be to assume that everyone's thoughts and actions are not just like ours. Such assumptions stem from potentially devastating ignorance and can lead to much frustration for members of both cultures.communication is something that no one can escape and it comes in many forms. Whenever a person from one culture sends a message to be processed from a different culture, intercultural communication is present. It is important to recognize when this happens so you are able to make wise decisions as to how you will communicate. Intercultural communication ethics incorporates learning about different goods, the discourse that arises from and shapes the texture of those goods, and practices that enable constructive conversation in a postmodern world of difference. In any ethical dilemma situation, we have to make hard choices in considering the intent, the action, the means, the consequence, the end goal, the situation, and the embedded cultural contexts of the case. In an intercultural decision-making context, in particular, we often have to make difficult choices between upholding our own cultural beliefs and values and considering the values of the other culture. Acknowledging these different goods, values, and beliefs will help one when interacting with another person from a different culture. A knowledge of intercultural communication, and the ability to use it effectively, can help bridge cultural differences, mitigate problems, and assist in achieving more harmonious, productive relations. This is especially important in today's world where the market is global. It is essential that people research the cultures and communication conventions of those whom they propose to meet. This will minimise the risk of making the elementary mistakes. It is also prudent to set a clear agenda so that everyone understands the nature and purpose of the interaction. When language skills are unequal, clarifying one's meaning in five ways will improve communication:

1. Avoid using slang and idioms, choosing words that will convey only the most specific denotative meaning;

2. Listen carefully and, if in doubt, ask for confirmation of understanding (particularly important if local accents and pronunciation are a problem);

3. Recognise that accenting and intonation can cause meaning to vary significantly;

4. Respect the local communication formalities and styles, and watch for any changes in body language.

5. Investigate their culture's perception of your culture by reading literature about your culture through their eyes before entering into communication with them. This will allow you to prepare yourself for projected views of your culture you will be bearing as a visitor in their culture.

If it is not possible to learn the other's language, it is expedient to show some respect by learning a few words. When writing, the choice of words represent the relationship between the reader and the writer so more thought and care should be invested in the text since it may well be thoroughly analysed by the recipient. Within the business context, cross cultural communication refers to interpersonal communication and interaction across different cultures. This has become an important issue in our age of globalisation and internationalisation. Effective cross cultural communication is concerned with overcoming cultural differences across nationality, religion, borders, culture and behaviour. In the business world, communication is imperative for the successful execution of daily operations. Understanding cultural differences and overcoming language barriers are some of the considerations people should have when dealing with business with people of various cultures. Often business deals are lost because the parties involved did not take the time to learn about their each others' cultures prior to interacting.

Customs

When
doing business with an affiliate from another country, consider the cultural differences that may be presented. This includes basic customs, mannerisms and gestures. For example, If a salesperson approaches a meeting with knowledge of a customer's cultural background, then his words, body language and actions can all be adapted to better suit those of the customers. This in turn may lead to being better liked by the customer, ultimately increasing the salesperson's opportunity to close the deal.

Language Barriers

In
some countries, like the United States and Germany, it is common for people to speak loudly and be more assertive or aggressive when sharing ideas or giving direction. In countries like Japan, people typically speak softly and are more passive about sharing ideas or making suggestions. When interacting with people from different cultures, speaking in a neutral tone and making a conscious effort to be considerate of others' input, even if it is given in a manner to which you are not accustomed, can help foster effective business communication.

Target Audience

When
launching a marketing campaign or advertising to members of a different culture, always research the target market prior to beginning the campaign. Levels of conservatism, gender views and ideologies can vary greatly between cultures. Presenting a campaign that is not in line with specific cultural norms can insult the target audience and greatly hinder the campaign. Being aware of cultural norms can also help your company narrow down the target audience. For instance, in Japan and Austria, men usually are in control of decision making, but women make the majority of purchasing decisions in Sweden.

Technology

Due
to globalization, people from various cultures and countries increasing conduct business with each other. Technology enables people to easily connect with people around the world in a moment's notice, but there are a few rules to remember before doing so. If making an international phone or video conferencing call, be conscious of the time zone differences and make sure to set a reasonable time for all involved parties to interact. It is important to remember that cultural differences can also affect availability. For instance, just because you schedule a conference call for the middle of the business day does not mean that the time will be favorable for the people you are conducting business with. Many Spanish cultures have longer lunch breaks than Americans are accustomed to, which means there may be a two - to three-hour time period during the day in which the person you would like to meet with is unavailable. Asking for availability prior to making the call is the best way to avoid any confusion. Once you are able to connect, speak clearly and slowly.

Politics

Political
influences, both past and present, can potentially affect the way a person or company does business. Some cultures have a very strong sense of nationalism and government pride, and therefore, are more comfortable and willing to purchase from companies with some sort of government backing. Conducting business with those of differing cultures can also impact negotiations if there are on-going political disputes between the involved parties' countries of origin. To avoid conflict, it is best to avoid discussing any political matter that does not directly pertain to the business at hand.

Listening and speaking must work in tandem for effective cross cultural communication. Speaking well is not about accent, use of grammar and vocabulary or having the gift of the gab. Rather, cross cultural communication is enhanced through positive speech such as encouragement, affirmation, recognition and phrasing requests clearly or expressing opinions sensitively.

Large amounts of cross cultural information can be read in people's dress, body language, interaction and behaviour. Be aware of differences with your own culture and try to understand the roots of behaviours. Asking questions expands your cross cultural knowledge. Man has been created differently and we need to recognize and understand that sometimes cross cultural differences are annoying and frustrating. In these situations patience is definitely a virtue. Through patience respect is won and cross cultural understanding is enhanced. Flexibility, adaptability and open-mindedness are the route to successful cross cultural communication. Understanding, embracing and addressing cross cultural differences leads to the breaking of cultural barriers which results in better lines of communication, mutual trust and creative thinking. Problems in business communication conducted across cultures often arise when participants from one culture are unable to understand culturally determined differences in communication practices, traditions, and thought processing. At the most fundamental level, problems may occur when one or more of the people involved clings to an ethnocentric view of how to conduct business. Ethnocentrism is the belief that one's own cultural group is somehow innately superior to others.

Culture directly affects the communication process in an international business setting through seven variables:

1. language

2. environmental and technological considerations

3. social organization

4. contexting and face-saving

5. authority conception

6. nonverbal communication behavior

7. time conception

Most barriers when communicating across cultures derive from the communicator's misgauge of these factors. By assessing in advance the roles these variables play in business communication, one can improve one's ability to convey those messages effectively to an audience from a different culture. The seven factors alone do not provide a thorough knowledge of another culture. Moreover, these seven dimensions of culture are not intended to represent the only cause of intercultural communication difficulties. Being aware of these factors does, however, provide an underlying foundation on which one can construct a framework for understanding the businesspeople from other cultures. In short, these seven factors represent an approach for asking the right questions needed to see the most significant cultural differences and similarities. The answers to those questions vary according to the individual experiences of those involved. Among the most often cited barriers to conflict-free cross-cultural business communication is the use of different languages. It is difficult to underestimate the importance that an understanding of linguistic differences plays in international business communication. Difficulties with language fall basically into three categories: gross translation problems, the problems in conveying subtle distinctions from language to language, and culturally-based variations among speakers of the same language. Gross translation errors, though frequent, may be less likely to cause conflict between parties than other language difficulties for two reasons. First, they are generally the easiest language difficulty to detect. Many gross translation errors are either ludicrous or make no sense at all. Only those errors that continue to be logical in both the original meaning and in the mistranslated version pose a serious concern. Nonetheless, even when easily detected, gross translation errors waste time and wear on the patience of the parties involved. Additionally, for some, such errors imply a form of disrespect for the party into whose language the message is translated. The subtle shadings that are often crucial to business negotiations are also weakened when the parties do not share a similar control of the same language. In English, for example, the mild distinctions between the words "misinterpret" and "misunderstand" can prove significant in a sensitive situation. To a touchy negotiator, to say that he or she "misunderstands" may imply that he or she is dim-witted. To say that same negotiator "misinterprets" a concept, by contrast, allows the negotiator a way to save face since all interpretations are arguable. He or she has reached an understandable though inaccurate interpretation of the matter. In such a situation, the term applies more objectively to the matter at hand than to the specific negotiator. To a nonnative speaker with inadequate control of the language, however, such subtle distinctions might be lost. When other parties with full control over the language with whom the nonnative speaker communicates assume that knowledge of this distinction exists, conflict deriving from misunderstanding is likely. Attitudes toward accents and dialects also create barriers in international business communication. The view that a particular accent suggests loyalty or familiarity to a nation or region is widespread in many languages. The use of Parisian French in Quebec, of Mexican Spanish in Spain, or subcontinental Indian English in the United States are all noticeable and may suggest a lack of familiarity even if the user is fluent. More importantly, regional ties or tensions in such nations as Italy, France, or Germany among others can be suggested by the dialect a native speaker uses. Finally, national prejudices and class distinctions are often reinforced thorough sociolinguistics-the social patterning of language. For example, due to regional prejudice and racism certain accents in the United States associated with urban areas (e. g., a Bronx accent), with rural regions (e. g., an Appalachian accent), or race (e. g., black English) may reinforce negative stereotypes (usually erroneously) regarding business ability, education level, or acumen among certain U. S. subgroups. Similarly, some cultures use sociolinguistics to differentiate one economic class from another. Thus, in England, distinct accents are associated with the aristocracy and the middle and lower classes. These distinctions are often unknown by foreigners. The ways in which people use the resources available to them often shifts drastically from culture to culture. Culturally-engrained biases regarding the natural and technological environment can create communication barriers. Most people are accustomed to ways of looking at the environment and the use of technology particular to their own culture. This, in turn, may make it difficult to accept or even to understand those views held by other cultures.

Five major areas of attitudes toward a nation's physical characteristics and natural resources are likely to result in cultural environmental presuppositions. These are:

1. climate

2. topography

3. population size

4. population density

5. the relative availability of natural resources

These five sources of environmental differences surface when people communicate on a wide spectrum of business-related subjects. Notions of transportation and logistics, settlement, and territorial organization are affected by topography and climate. For example, transportation and logistics in one culture may seem patently absurd in another. The manager of a Canadian company doing business in South America might never think to ship goods from Chile to neighboring Argentina by the circuitous route of the Panama Canal. Because Canada is relatively flat and has an excellent network of railroads and highways, the Canadian manager might assume that the easiest way to transport goods for any short distance would be overland. This preference would be reinforced by the fact that many Canadian waterways freeze over due to its harsh climate. As a result, the Canadian might well assume or even specify a preference for overland transport in any relevant business communication. What the Canadian might not understand in such a situation is that the rugged physical environment of the Andean terrain and the related absence of cross-Andean railroads and freeways would make such an option unreasonably expensive or even impossible. By contrast, warm water ports and relatively easy access to the Panama Canal or other waterways would reinforce the option of water routes even for such relatively short overland distances. Population size and the availability of natural resources influence each nation's view toward export or domestic markets. The United States and China, for example, both have gigantic domestic markets and are rich in natural resources. Both nations export out of choice, and have a tendency to internalize their views of foreign markets. Foreign markets in such countries may be culturally reinforced as being secondary markets as a result, with a cultural emphasis on domestic markets. By contrast, Switzerland, with neither a large domestic population nor abundant natural resources, is culturally oriented toward export with foreign markets viewed as their primary markets and the domestic Swiss market as a comparatively negligible secondary market. Population density and space usage influence the development of different cultural perceptions of how space and materials are used. Thus, how people lay out or use office space, domestic housing, and buildings in general shifts from nation to nation. For example, in many nations the size, layout, and furnishings of a business office communicate a message. The message communicated, however, varies from nation to nation. Such differences may be subtle or overt. For example, the distinctions between the U. S. and French upper-level executive's office may be quite subtle. In both France and the United States, the size of an office, plushness of its furnishings, and location in the building (corner office or top floor of the building) reflect the status of the office's owner. In France, however, the individual aesthetics of the office decor convey an important statement about the office owner while in the U. S. office the wall decorations and furnishings are often selected by a designer with little input from the office's occupant. Much more overt is the contrast between the U. S. or French executive office and the "open system" offices of Japan. In the open system office, Japanese department heads have no individual offices at all. Instead, their desks are simply one of numerous other desks placed in a regularly patterned arrangement in a large open area. No partitions are used between the desks at all and no individual offices exist. Yet each person in this officeless open system is strategically placed in a way that communicates his or her rank and status just as surely as the U. S. or French individual office system. Thus, the department heads' desks are normally placed at a point farthest from the door where the department heads can view their whole department easily at a glance. Moreover, further status may be indicated by placement near a window. The messages communicated by such placement in a large open area may be entirely lost on the French or U. S. visitor unfamiliar with it. More seriously, the failure of business people to modify their communication to accommodate environmental differences often derives from ethnocentric inflexibility toward culturally learned views of technology. Generally, cultures may be divided into three approaches toward technology: (1) control; (2) subjugation, and (3) harmonization. In control cultures such as those of northern Europe and North America, technology is customarily viewed as an innately positive means for controlling the environment. If a road approaches a mountain in a control culture, a tunnel is blasted through the mountain. If the tunnel collapses, the cultural view is that the technology was inadequate to the task and needs to be improved. In subjugation cultures such as those of central Africa and southwestern Asia, the existing environment is viewed as innately positive and technology is viewed with some skepticism. If a road approaches a mountain, the road may simply stop at the mountain. If a tunnel is used and does collapse, the cultural view is that the very idea of going through the mountain was misguided, not that the technology was inadequate. In harmonization cultures such as those common in many Native American cultures and some East Asian nations, a balance is attempted between the use of technology and the existing environment. In these cultures, neither technology nor the environment are innately good and members of such cultures see themselves as part of the environment in which they live being neither subject to it nor master of it. One major communication stumbling block among those from control cultures is the belief that other cultures wish to be more like them. Control cultures tend to describe themselves as the "industrialized nations." Their members are often acculturated to believe that the way in which people in less industrialized nations use their resources results from inherently inferior technology. Arguably, in some cases this position may be defensible. Often, though, the reason people use the resources available to them in the manner that they do is because it makes good business sense to use them in that fashion within the context of their own cultural views. Social organization, as it affects the workplace, is often culturally determined. One must take care not to assume that the view held in one's own culture is universal on such issues reflecting the culture's social organization as nepotism and kinship ties, educational values, class structure and social mobility, job status and economic stratification, religious ties, political affiliation, gender differences, racism and other prejudices, attitudes toward work, and recreational or work institutions. All of these areas have far-reaching implications for business practice. Choosing employees based on resumes, for example, is considered a primary means of selection in the United States, Canada, and much of northern Europe-all nations with comparatively weak concepts of familial relationships and kinship ties. In these cultures, nepotism is seen as subjective and likely to protect less qualified workers through familial intervention. By contrast, it would seem anywhere from mildly to highly inappropriate to suggest to members of many Arabic, central African, Latin American, or southern European cultures to skip over hiring relatives to hire a stranger. For people in these cultures, nepotism both fulfills personal obligations and ensures a predictable level of trust and accountability. The fact that a stranger appears to be better qualified based on a superior resume and a relatively brief interview would not, as it might for example in the United States or Sweden, affect that belief. Such a suggestion, depending on the situation at hand, could be made. To effectively suggest such a course of action, however, one would need to communicate this in a manner adjusted to the way that employees would likely react to so distressing an order. Similarly, the nature of praise and employee motivation can be socially determined. For example, a promotion of a single member of a traditional Japanese work group may cause the productivity and morale of both the group and the promoted employee to fall. A similar promotion in the United States, by contrast, might be seen as a reward for the promoted employee and might even be viewed as encouraging the remaining members of the group to work harder for a goal that they too might attain. Thus to communicate such a promotion openly may prove to be a poor policy in Japan but a good policy in the United States. Finally, it is often difficult to rid business communication of a judgmental bias when social organization varies markedly. For example, those from the United States may find it difficult to remain neutral on class structures prevent upward mobility. For instance, the socially determined inferior role of women in much of the Islamic world, or of lower castes in India-to name just two-may prove particularly disturbing to those from the United States. Nevertheless, if the U. S. businessperson cannot eliminate the attendant condemnation from his or her business communication, then he or she cannot expect to function effectively in that society. An individual may personally believe that a country's social system is inefficient or incorrect. Nevertheless, in the way that individual conducts business on a daily basis, it is necessary to work within the restraints of that culture to succeed. One may choose not to do business with people from such a culture but one cannot easily impose one's own values on them and expect to do well communication depends on the context in which the communication is set. The more information sender and receiver share in common, the higher the context of the communication and the less necessary to communicate through words or gestures communication, then, can be seen as being high or low in contexting. In a highly contexted situation, much of what people choose not to say is essential to understanding the transmitted message. Even though a person may not have said anything directly, others are still expected to understand the unspoken message. Edward T. Hall was the first person to coin the term "contexting." Hall observed: The matter of contexting requires a decision concerning how much information the other person can be expected to possess on a given subject. It appears that all cultures arrange their members and relationships along the context scale, and one of the great communication strategies, whether addressing a single person or an entire group, is to ascertain the correct level of contexting of one's communication … the rules vary from culture to culture, so that to infer by the level of contexting that "they" do not understand may be an insult, even though your assumption is correct. High context cultures include such nations as Japan, China, Mexico, Greece, the Arab countries, Brazil, and Korea. Mid-level contexted cultures include England, Finland, Italy, and France. Low context cultures include the United States, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Germany, and the German-speaking portion of Switzerland. This set of examples is very limited and also fails to account for cultural and regional differences domestically. Thus, the Western Apaches of the southwestern United States may well be the most highly contexted of all cultures worldwide, although their numbers are insufficient to affect the general low context communication among the majority of people in the United States. Similarly, regional differences in Germany are apparent in the contrast between relatively higher contexted Bavarians and lower contexted north Germans although all are Germans and all would be lower contexted than the average Briton or Japanese. Finally, no two cultures share the same level of contexting. Thus, in any cross-cultural exchange, one party will act as the higher contexted and one the lower contexted. In high context cultures much of what is not actually said must be inferred through what may seem to be indirection. To people from lower context cultures, those in high context cultures may seem needlessly vague. Conversely, those from high context cultures may view their low context counterparts as impersonal and confusingly literal. As a communicator in an international business setting, it is important to assess the level of contexting inherent in the communication of the culture in which one conducts business to understand clearly what has been conveyed. Since contexting represents a cross-cultural shift in the conception of explicit versus implicit communication, any area of business communication in which such distinctions play a part are significantly affected. Thus, in high context cultures, the emphasis on words chosen in general and on the written word in particular is relatively weak since words provide only one aspect of the context of the communication. As a result, how something is said matters more than what is actually said. By contrast, in low context cultures, the actual words matter more than the intended meaning. What is actually said-and especially what is actually written-matters more than the context in which it was said. The contexting implications of this variance in the emphasis on the actual word are far-reaching for business. In low context cultures, emphasis on explicit communication leads to a rigid adherence to law while in high context cultures the law is seen as flexible to accommodate different situations. In low context cultures written agreements are seen as binding while personal promises are viewed as nonbinding. In direct contrast, high context cultures are more likely to hold a flexible understanding of written agreements while holding personal promises to be more binding. High context cultures, as a result, find that their interpersonal behavior is governed by individual interpretation (that is, the context of the relationship) while low context cultures find that their relationships are dictated by external rules. Finally, a correlation exists between face-saving and contexting. Cultures with high contexting are more concerned with face, that is, preserving prestige or outward dignity. Low context cultures are less concerned with face since words are more likely to be taken without underlying implied meaning. As a result, high context cultures tend to favor a business communication approach based on indirection and politeness; low context cultures follow more of a confrontation strategy and use a direct plan approach to business communication. High context cultures tend to interpret directness in communication as uncivil and rude; low context cultures tend to view directness as honest and inoffensive. As a corollary, high context cultures view indirectness as honest and showing consideration while low context cultures view indirectness as dishonest and offensive. Finally, high context cultures tend to prefer minimal amounts of verbal self-disclosure, preferring vagueness to stating the obvious. Low context cultures by contrast are intolerant of vagueness and demand a high amount of explicit verbal self-disclosure. Different cultures often view the distribution of authority in their society differently. Geert Hofstede, the Dutch international business researcher, has called this dimension of cultural variation "power distance" defining this as "the extent to which a society accepts the fact that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally." The view of authority in a given society affects communication in the business environment significantly as it shapes the view of how a message will be received based on the relative status or rank of the message's sender to its receiver. Thus in a relatively decentralized business environment-as exists even in many highly centralized U. S.companies-people generally pay attention to a person based on how convincing an argument he or she puts forth, regardless of that person's rank or status within the organization or society at large. By contrast, in a highly centralized culture, a relatively high-ranking individual communicates is taken very seriously, even if one disagrees. This, in turn, has far-reaching effects for the form managerial communication takes based on the relative authority conception of a given culture. In working with cultures such as Israel and Sweden, which have a relatively decentralized authority conception or small "power distance," one might anticipate at the outset more acceptance of a participative communication management model. Conversely, in working with cultures such as France and Belgium, one might anticipate at the outset relatively less use of participative management models and more concern with who has the relevant authority. Among the most markedly varying dimensions of intercultural communication is nonverbal behavior. Knowledge of a culture conveyed through what a person says represents only a portion of what that person has communicated. Much of nonverbal communication may be broken down into six areas: dress; kinesics, or body language; oculesics, or eye contact; haptics, or touching behavior; proxemics, or the use of body space; and paralanguage. Any one of these areas communicates significant information nonverbally in any given culture. One of the most apparent differences is the interpretation of dress. The message given by polished shoes, for instance, could easily be lost on a culture in which sandals are the standard footwear. Similarly, a woman's decision to wear her best suit would be lost in a culture in which no women wear business suits. Even when cultures share similar forms of dress, the message inherent in the choice of clothing is not always the same. For instance, the selection of a conservative tie for a formal negotiation might well be shared by several cultures, but exactly what a conservative tie is (even when all parties belong to cultures in which men generally wear ties) remains determined by the standards that prevail in that particular culture. Thus, what is a conservative tie in one culture may seem unconservative or flashy in another, giving a different message altogether. Just as importantly, people often bring to a crosscultural meeting ethnocentric prejudices regarding what they believe to be proper dress. Thus, a European or American may condemn as somehow less than civilized a Saudi or Iranian in traditional garb. Conversely, a Saudi or Iranian may well consider as flagrantly immoral the bare face, arms, and legs of a European or American woman in business attire. Nonverbal behavioral differences in kinesics may be less obvious than dress differences. How people walk, gesture, bow, stand, or sit are all, to a large part, culturally determined. In many cases, a kinesic sign well understood in one culture is totally unknown in another culture. In Indonesia and in much of the Arab world, for example, it is offensive to show the soles of one's feet to another. This often clashes with behavior in the United States where foot-crossing is common with no attention to where one's sole points. In Japan, a relatively elaborate system of bowing is common but has no counterpart in the United States. This entire system of nonverbal communication is therefore generally lost on most U. S. businesspeople. Some kinesic behavior may carry distinctly different meanings in more than one culture. In such cases, all parties recognize the gesture, but interpret it differently. During George Bush's visit to Australia while he was president, he held up two fingers in a V sign. In both countries the symbol is widely understood, but in the United States the "V" emblem is a sign of good will, victory, and solidarity, while in Australia it carries a lewd, sexual meaning. Haptics or touching behavior also reflects cultural values. In a generally nonhaptic society such as Japan, touching another person in a business setting even with a handshake is traditionally considered foreign. While those Japanese familiar with U. S. handshaking may adapt to its use, one can expect that such cultural compromise would not easily extend to so haptic a response as a pat on the back. The United States itself is a fairly nonhaptic society, particularly between men. In many cultures that behave more haptically, men often walk with arms interlinked or hold hands which to U. S. males might appear effeminate or overly intimate. Oculesics or the use of eye contact also varies significantly depending on the culture involved. In several cultures, for example, it is considered disrespectful to prolong eye contact with those who are older or of higher status. In many cultures, it is considered improper for women to look men in the eye. By contrast, in the United States, studies have shown that eye contact has less to do with age or rank than with a person's credibility or sense of belonging. While fairly steady eye contact in the United States may indicate the listener's interest and attentiveness, intense eye contact may prove disconcerting. Finally, proxemics or how far apart people stand when speaking or how far apart they sit in meetings carries significant information to people who share the same culture. Here, too, as with other nonverbal behavior, such information is likely to be garbled across cultures. Personal space is culturally determined. In the United States, for instance, people tend to feel most comfortable in business settings when speaking at approximately arm's length apart from each other. In many Latin American, southern European, central African and Middle Eastern cultures, however, a comfortable conversational distance would be much closer. Indeed, in many parts of the world, friendly or serious conversations are conducted close enough to feel the breath of the speaker on one's face. The U. S. or northern European communicator unaware of this may face a very discomforting situation, with the speaker literally backing his or her U. S. or northern European counterpart into a corner as the speaker continues to move closer to the retreating listener. The result in a business situation could be disastrous. The speaker with the closer personal space conception would likely feel distrustful and even spurned by the listener with the larger space conception. Conversely, the person with larger personal space conception might feel the encroaching speaker to be pushy, overly aggressive, or rude. International business communication is also affected by cross-cultural differences in temporal conception or the understanding of time. Most U. S. and northern European businesspeople conceive of time as inflexible, a thing to be divided, used, or wasted. This is not, however, a universal view. How one uses time, consequently, may profoundly affect the way in which business is conducted in various parts of the world. While it is dangerous to overgeneralize, most cultures fall with varying degrees into two types of temporal conception. The first type adheres to preset schedules in which the schedules take precedence over personal interaction or over the completion of the business at hand. Edward Hall coined the term "monochronic" to describe this system of temporal organization. By contrast, those who follow what Hall termed a "polychronic" temporal organization rank personal involvement and completion of existing transactions above the demands of preset schedules. Admittedly, not all societies can be easily divided into monochronic and polychronic systems. Often certain subsets within a society will function monochronically, while others within the same culture will function polychronically. For example, most major corporations in the United States follow a strict monochronic system. Many doctors in the United States, however, follow a comparatively polychronic system. Still on the whole, one might generalize that U. S. culture as a whole holds a monochronic conception of time. Because people generally complete tasks at the expense of scheduling in polychronic societies, people in high authority may become easily overwhelmed with multiple tasks. To prevent overloading people in positions of high authority, those in polychronic societies often use subordinates to screen for them. Once a person can get past those screening, the person in authority will generally see the task through regardless of the relative importance of the task. Because a polychronic system encourages a one-on-one interaction, such cultural organization usually allows for highly personalized relationships to flourish between the person in authority and the task-bringer. The flow of information is open in both directions at all times. Indeed, for the system to work smoothly, it is to the advantage of both superior and subordinate to stay fully aware of all aspects-professional and personal-of each other's lives. This personal involvement makes it even harder for the person in authority to refuse once the task is presented. Thus, in such situations being able to break through those who screen for the person in authority is often the hardest part of having the person in authority assist in a task. No direct barriers exist between the leader and the subordinate; the superior will always welcome the subordinate. This develops a system in which influence and close circles of contacts among those screening for those higher up create an informal and unofficial business hierarchy. In a monochronic system, personal feelings are rarely allowed to flourish on the job precisely because personal involvement must not be allowed to affect preset schedules if the system is to function smoothly. Personal relationships are determined by the terms of the job. Multiple tasks are handled one at a time in a prescheduled manner. People in authority are, in contrast to those in polychronic societies, available by scheduling appointments. In such a system, time screens tasks for the authority figure rather than the authority figure's subordinates or the personal relationship among the people involved. The communication strategy for facing a generally polychronic system of time conception differs significantly from the strategy for facing a generally monochronic one. For example, in a polychronic system, one should be aware that people distinguish between insiders and those outside the existing personal relationships. One must therefore try to establish an inside connection to facilitate the effectiveness of a given message. By contrast, in a monochronic society, one needs only to schedule a meeting with the appropriate people. One should not expect people in a monochronic system to give preference to those they know over complete strangers. The outsider is treated in exactly the same fashion as the close associate. The influence of temporal conception on communication is extensive. This is further complicated by the fact that no culture is exclusively polychronic or monochronic. Members of any culture lean to one direction or the other, although the cultures as a whole may organize their thoughts and conceive of time more one way or the other. The central issue here is to keep alert to communication differences that would indicate that one culture was more monochronic or polychronic in orientation, and to adapt one's communication strategies accordingly. As business has turned more and more to an integrated world market to meet its needs, the difficulties of communicating at a global level have become increasingly widespread. Lack of understanding deriving from ethnocentrism or ignorance of culturally based assumptions erroneously believed to be universal can readily escalate to unproductive conflict among people of differing cultural orientation. Still, in an increasingly competitive world economy, it is harder for the successful business venture (than it may have been in the past) to conduct business exclusively within the safe confines of a single domestic business environment. Consequently, the need for dealing with intercultural differences and cross-cultural communication barriers has grown as well. The cross-cultural issues suggested in this brief summary provide a framework for asking the right questions when preparing for business communication with those from other cultures. By asking the way in which each of these factors is likely to affect communication with people from that specific culture, many of the communication barriers between people of different cultures can be anticipated.

4. Устный перевод

Устный перевод я выполняла в Парке высоких технологий. Парк высоких технологий (ПВТ) - особая экономическая зона со специальным налогово-правовым режимом в Республике Беларусь, для создания благоприятных условий для разработки программного обеспечения, информационно-коммуникационных технологий (ИКТ), направленных на повышение конкурентоспособности национальной экономики.
Парк высоких технологий (ПВТ) - особая экономическая зона со специальным налогово-правовым режимом в Республике Беларусь, для создания благоприятных условий для разработки программного обеспечения, информационно-коммуникационных технологий (ИКТ), направленных на повышение конкурентоспособности национальной экономики.
Особая экономическая зона Особая экономическая зона или Свободная экономическая зона (сокращённо ОЭЗ или СЭЗ) - ограниченная территория в регионах, с особым юридическим статусом по отношению к остальной территории и льготными экономическими условиями для национальных или иностранных предпринимателей.
Разрабо́тка програ́ммного обеспе́чения (англ. software development) - деятельность по созданию нового программного обеспечения.
Сегодня ПВТ - один из ведущих инновационных ИТ-кластеров в Центральной и Восточной Европе. В составе Парка на 11 июня 2014 года - 139 компаний-резидентов, которые занимаются разработкой программных продуктов и предоставлением ИТ-услуг клиентам из 57 стран мира, общая численность сотрудников 18 тыс. человек. В отличие от большинства европейских и азиатских Парков, ПВТ Беларуси - виртуальный Парк. Это означает, что правовой режим ПВТ действует на всей территории Республики Беларусь. Вы можете зарегистрироваться в качестве резидента и использовать все преимущества ПВТ независимо от того, где размещается офис вашей белорусской компании: от областного центра до небольшого населенного пункта. Это позволяет в полной мере использовать образовательный, научно-исследовательский, профессиональный и инфраструктурный потенциал всей страны. Руководителем практики являлся Северин Сергей Александрович - главный специалист отдела маркетинга и развития администрации Парка высоких технологий.

Первым заданием практики был поиск информации об основателях высокотехнологичных компаний и добавление их в базу, я выполнила работу по таким основателям как RoryCutaia и JoMarciano. Вторым заданием был поиск финансовых показателей деятельности компаний сектора ИКТ за последние 4 года, анализ деятельности компании и ее выручки, моя работа была по компании Xerox.

Заключение

За время учебной переводческой практики мне представилась возможность:

· усовершенствовать свои навыки реферирования, аннотирования и свертывания текста на английском и русском языках;

· овладеть навыками устного перевода с английского на русский и с русского на английский;

· расширить знания речевых клише на английском языке;

· улучшить умение работать со словарями;

· ознакомиться и участвовать в работе Парка высоких технологий.

Практика состояла из 4 видов работ: аннотирование, реферирование, перевод, устный перевод. Основными темами для которых я выбрала: основы коммуникации, эффективная бизнес-коммуникация, язык тела и бизнес-этикет. Деловая коммуникация бывает устной и письменной, межличностной и публичной, диалогической и монологической, непосредственной и опосредованной, контактной и дистантной. За счет письменной и устной речи в бизнес-среде реализуются деловые диалогические отношения. Данная форма деловой коммуникации осуществляется в виде обмена деловыми письмами, документами, договорами и контрактами, фиксирующими правовые отношения. Устную деловую речь используют на переговорах, во время важных встреч и консультаций. Деловую коммуникацию можно трактовать и как деятельность, осуществляемую для достижения тех или иных интересов фирмы, ее основных целей. В зависимости от конкретной ситуации можно выделить различные формы проявления бизнес-коммуникации: совещание, презентация, беседа, публичное выступление. Деловая беседа является наиболее распространенной формой деловой коммуникации. Немалую роль в бизнес-коммуникации играют внешние особенности собеседника. Как известно, визуальный контакт формирует первое впечатление о человеке, а элементы одежды способны передавать подробную информацию о нем, его социальном статусе и личностных характеристиках. Актуальность данной тематики обусловлена тем, что она тесно связана с моей специальностью и вызывает у меня большой интерес.